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  • 1. Mitosis• cell division for growth, healing & asexual repro. 1 diploid set  2 identical diploid sets somatic cells• Interphase: replication = 90% of cycle so…chromatin• then Mitosis: P M A T 1. Prophase: chromatin condenses  visible chromosomes homologous pairs vs dupl. chromosomes membrane breaks & centrioles move to poles Early prophase Late prophase
  • 2. more Mitosis2. Metaphase: replicatedchromosomes line up at equator end-to-end spindle fibersattach to chromatids = decision made notice # of fibers one perchromatid what is going to get separated from what?so what is aspindle fiber? Elastic connective tissue …and what ifit gets old and loses its elasticity? Transition to metaphase Metaphase
  • 3. and more still3. Anaphase: centromere breaks down = chromatids not held together fibers retract to separate chromatids what is being separated here? what is staying together (NOT separated)?…and remember what happens when those fibers get old and lose their elasticity?
  • 4. …last one4. Telophase: centrioles back to original position nuclear membrane forms x 2 THEN….. Cytokinesis: cleavage furrow …..and we start over again Telophase Cytokinesis
  • 5. Diagrammatic representations for the major stages of prophase I of meiosis I (above) and photographs of such stages (below)Interphase L Zygotene P Diplotene Diakinesis
  • 6. Diagrammatic representations for the major stages of meiosis I (above) and photographs of such stages (below)Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I INT Prophase II
  • 7. Diagrammatic representations for the major stages ofmeiosis II (above) and photographs of such stages (below Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Tetrad stage
  • 8. Diagrammatic illustration of chromosome types, based on centromere position as defined by Levan et al., 1964Karyotype preparation based on chromosome length and centromere positionMetacentric Submetacentric Acrocentric Telocentric
  • 9. • What is crossing over? How does it work?• The result? Swapped alleles between homologous pairs Would swapping alleles between chromatids in a dupl. chromosome change anything? So, vs Mitosis: 1. Prophase is longer 2. Side- by-side 3. Crossing over
  • 10. • Metaphase 1: Chromosomes already lined up so all that’s left to do is... Spindle fibers attach notice # of fibers (vs Mitosis) one / dupl. chromosome what is going to get separated from what? The decision is made = “Independent Assortment” decision made independently at each chromosome Metaphase 1 of So, vs mitosis: meiosis Metaphase is shorter vs XX XX XX XX Metaphase - mitosis
  • 11. • Anaphase & telophase similar to Mitosis• Second round of cell division separates chromatids one from another – just like Mitosis 1st round 2nd round