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Glacial Features On Topographic Maps
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Glacial Features On Topographic Maps


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Glacial features on topographic maps in relation to photographs and satellite images

Glacial features on topographic maps in relation to photographs and satellite images

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  • 1. Glacial Features
    Caitlin Spence, Hyun Kyung Park, Makoto Dodo
  • 2. U Shaped Valley
    Glen Clova, Angus, Great Britain
    A valley that forms when a glacier erodes a river valley from its original V shape to a U shape
  • 3. Where photograph was taken
    U shaped valley
    Truncated spurs
    Misfit stream
    Flat glacial trough; no contour lines
  • 4.
  • 5. Cirque (or Corrie)
    Llyn y Gadair, Gwynedd, Great Britain
    A bowl-shaped depression carved out of a mountain by an alpine glacier
    A steep-walled hollow, shaped like a half-bowl, formed by glaciation and frost wedging
    Cirques are found in mountainous regions populated with glaciers, or which have had a history of being glaciated
  • 6. Cirque
    Contour lines suggest height  mountains, where cirques are found
  • 7. Ribbon Lake
    Long and narrow, finger-shaped lake, usually found in a glacial trough
  • 8. N
    Narrow width
    Long length
  • 9. Hanging Valley
    A shallow glacial trough that leads into the side of a larger, main glacial trough
    A valley most often formed as a result of glaciation, where a large glacier erodes a valley, at a perpendicular angle to the hanging valley, to a deeper extent. The result is that of a small valley intersecting a larger valley at an elevation noticeably above the bottom of the larger valley. Hanging valleys can be, but are not always, eroded by a glacier.
  • 10. Hanging Valley animation
    Hanging Valley
    Stream leading to hanging valley
    Lake carved out by large glacier
  • 11. Arête
    A sharp narrow ridge found in rugged mountains
    A sharp-edged ridge of rock formed between adjacent cirque glaciers
    An arête is a thin, almost knife-like, ridge of rock which is typically formed when two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys. The arête is a thin ridge of rock that is left separating the two valleys.
  • 12. GribGoch, Snowdia
    National Park in
    Gwynedd, Wales
  • 13. Topographic Map of Crib Goch
  • 14. Horn
    A high mountain peak that forms when the walls of three or more glacial cirques intersect.
    A pyramidal peak, or sometimes in its most extreme form called a glacial horn, is a mountaintop that has been modified by the action of ice during glaciation and frost weathering.
  • 15. Mount Wilbur,
    Glacier National
    Park in Montana
    Glacial Horn
  • 16. Topographic map of Mount Wilbur
    Ribbon Lake
    Glacial Horn
    U-shape Valley?
  • 17. Moraines
    Glacial moraine at Borrowdale, Lake District, Cumbria
    Moraine : a French word that refers to any glacier-formed accumulation .
    Terminal moraine : an accumulation at the outermost edge of where a glacier or ice sheet existed.
    Recessional moraine: moraine located "behind" the outermost edge of a glacier, formed when the glacier lingers in one spot for a long time.
    Ground moraine: gently rolling hills and plains deposited by ice.
    Lateral moraine: ridges of till on the sides of a glacier.
    Medial moraine: a moraine formed when two glaciers merge (a tributary and trunk glacier) and their lateral moraines come together to form a single moraine.
    Push moraine: a moraine created by till that was a moraine deposited by an earlier glacier that once covered the area.
    Ablation moraine: a moraine formed from material that fell upon the glacier.
  • 18. Moraine
  • 19. This ridge along the edge of a field is evidence that this area was covered by ice about 10,000 years ago. It was not constructed, but was left at the front of a melting glacier, as with melting glaciers in Canada or Norway today. As glaciers move, they scrape along the valley floor, eroding large amounts of rock material. They also transport frost-shattered boulders that fall from the valley sides and land on the glacier. When the glacier melts, this mixture of finely-ground rock, pebbles, and large boulders – moraine – is left as ridges both at the glacier “snout” (terminal moraine) and along the valley sides (lateral moraine).