Ali Newell & Peter Nuttall kiwi geographers For the past decade our home has been a sailing ship in the Pacific. We learnt to live, travel, work and play on a fossil fuel budget of less than 1 litre a day for a family of 5. 2 litres of fuel to travel from NZ to Fiji. We use solar, wind & tow–behind generators to provide all electricity - advances in technology - LED lights, Ni-cad rechargeable batteries help.These are adaptations that are all available to village Oceania
Sail power ruled once .......... is it viable for the future?
Increase subsidies to pay for Ship increased fuel cost? Owners Send Is it possible to decrease fuel costs by changing fuel ..... SOSLocal Shipping companieshave called on the ...... to wind?government to increase itssubsidy. .... The increase inthe price of fuel prices. .... The government provides If it were possible , Fiji could42 percent subsidy aimed toencourage private shipping have the “greenest” shippingoperators to service fleet in the world....uneconomical routes...... .....green enough to earn carbon credits to subsidise uneconomic routes?
Using traditionalknowledge to adaptfor a sustainablefuture Looking to the horizon: toward sail-powered sea transport for Fiji
New approaches/solutions needed for Oceania. Ever increasing demand for resources/services in an ocean dominated by sea transport. Climate change/environmental degradation/acid oceans Decreasing supplies and increasing demand for fossil fuels = increasing exposure to price and security of supply The uniqueness of Island Oceania means challenges and opportunities are not necessarily the same as for Continental Earth. Oceania has a successful historical record of continuous adaption and innovation excellence in sea-transport.
Ships are to Oceania as horses, roads, cars, rail and trucks are tocontinents. globally, 90% of goods/resources transported by sea costs more to ship a container by road 100km than it does to move by sea from China to Europe Sea transport produces more CO2 than Germany produces more sulphur dioxide than all global cars and lorries. generates 27 per cent of the world’s nitrogen oxide emissionsOceania is more reliant on imported fossil fuel than any other partof the world – 95% (99% if PNG/Fiji excluded)Fiji Govt target is reduce imported fuel by $100m
2011 Data• 65,000 deaths p.a. globally directly attributable to shipping• 4.8% of all GHG• I6 ships = more SO2 than world vehicle fleet
Projected emissions up to 2050 under four different technology scenarios that vary the sulphur content of ship fuels show a strong increasing trend, with the steepest increase between 2010 and 2030. Source: IPCC, 2007Global sea transportdemand predicted to incr150% -250% in 40 yrTransport EnergyConsumption.Source: IPCC 2007
Sail-powered sea-transport: intellectual property legacy of the Pacific issue that links all of Oceania Appropriate Available Accessible Affordable Adaptable Sustainable Renewable
It’s a windgeneratorJim, just not aswe know it!!!
Sailing – An Oceanic LegacyOver past 3-5,000 yrs, Pacific Sailors explored & populated the Pacific Ocean, 1/3 globe on planned voyages aboard fast, seaworthy double hulled sailing ships.For most of this time the continental world couldn’t sail out of sight of land.My ancestors believed the earth was flat.
The ships & sails were the pinnacle of sailing technology –fast, big and manoeuvrable.If the America’s Cup had been sailed in 1800 it would havebeen a race between Drua, Kalia and Va’a.The Pacific was an ocean of sailsThe primary technology forvoyaging, exploration, warfare, communication and trade.
Fijian Vesi was at the centre of a trading network that covered much of central Oceania, complex networks of island and village communities connected by reliable vessels of up to 100’ moving seasonally.After colonisation, as with other Pacific island experience, most local based sea transportventures failed.This appears to be from • The availability of larger ships than a single community/island could operate • a failure to balance vaka vanua and cultural principles with modern business imperativesNot • Poor seamanship or asset maintenance, or • Any inability to understand western commerce
In only a few decades, much of this indigenous technology and knowledge was lost. Islanders became reliant on ships owned by “outsiders” and then on fossil fuel powered sea-transport. Sail is now used largely for recreation, sport and tourism
Surely the case for sail has beenexhaustively examined before now?Unfortunately no. With cheap oil, motor propulsion has held almost total dominance.Sea transport has a low profile compared with air and land transport issues.There have been some important experiments following the oil crisis in the 1970s, largely abandoned after oil prices fell the next decade.
Na Mataisau (1984)6 yr old, 300 ton passenger/cargoship used for island work in Fiji.Retrofitted with auxiliary sailingrig -ADB /SouthamptonUniversity project.Results were impressive: 23 % fuel saving Incr stability = incr passenger comfort & safety, reduced engine wear, reduced roll. 30% overall engine wear reduction Feathering prop would = additional 30% saving Capable of pure sail
17 Jan 1985 Na Mataisau was caught in a developing cyclone Her engines failed. Under sail alone she made the safety of Maloa Is. Although she grounded and sank, 16 crew and party of passengers including Fiji PM made it ashore 2 crew were drowned.The rig was salvaged and puton “Kapawai” but sufferedtechnical problems.“Cagidonu” was also fittedwith sails and achieved up to30% fuel savings.
The research from Southampton Universitycollected comprehensive wind and route datafor all Fiji which is all still relevant today
The results from these experiments provide compellingarguments for sail use on most common Fiji shipping routes
Also in the 1980s the Japanese fitted small oil tankers with fixed wing sails. These were high tech, computer controlled rigs. Again the results were Shin Aitoku Maru impressive. But low fuel costs meant they were discontinued after 3 yrs.The ships use anevolution oftraditional squarerigs
• Overall fuel savings of up to 30%• The sails replaced the need for stabilisers – the roll and pitch of the boat was greatly reduced. Energy demand decreased by 50%• Increased stability meant vessel could operate in stronger weather than conventional ships• Engine wear dramatically reduced• Vessel maximum cruising speed increased from 12-14kts• Vessel could be sailed without motors in emergencies
Fuel efficiencies are potentially as high as 65% onfavourable routes. Fuel savings alone would make theIRR extremely favourableSuch barges would have application across Fiji – timbertransport for pine from Kadavu, copra from Koro, etc
Such barges would have application across Fiji – timbertransport for pine from Kadavu, copra from Koro, etc
More recently focus has shifted to the potential for kite sails. It ispredicted that these sails can reduce fuel consumption bybetween 30 and 50 per cent, depending on the wind conditions.The system could be applied to 60,000vessels out of the 100,000 listed in the Lloyd’sregister including bulk carriers, tankers .
In the 1980’s FAO investigated and trialled arange of artisanal fishing craft in a number ofPacific Island countries.More than 350vessels were built.These includedseveral sail or sailassisted vesselsranging from oneperson fishingcatamarans to 11 mtrimarans.
Although the uptake waslow, the design work is stillrelevant todayOne of the critical lessonslearned was that cultureswith a living sailingtradition were much morelikely to use sail effectively.A whole sailing culture hasto be learnt and used .Sail options need todemonstrate economicviability for broad uptake KIRIBATI – 7.1 Metre Canoe KIB-4
Pacific Voyaging Revival In the past 30 yrs there has been a sustained revival and relearning of Oceanic sailing heritage. There are increasing numbers of traditional (and modern adaptations) of iconic Oceanic sailing craft and increasing interest by Pacific Islanders in their sailing heritage. The most recent fleet, including Uto ni Yalo has led to an unprecedented resurgence in interest in sailing and Drua culture in Fiji.
Today, we are joining with othervoyaging societies across the Pacific tore-learn and re-claim our sailing history.We hope we can use these skills andknowledge to highlight the pressingenvironmental concerns facing ourislands and our ocean.We want to learn to use sailing foreveryday use and reduce ourdependence on fossil fuels.
Propulsion Options for Sea-Transport Vessels0% 100% FUEL ENERGY Wind fuel Propul.50% 50% WIND ENERGYFuelPropul. wind100 % 0% Wind-Assisted Motor -AssistedMotorship Motorship Motor – Wind – Ship Windship
Sailing for Sustainability in Solodamu, Kadavu, FijiIn 2008 we set out to answer this question:Can one small village sustainably operate a sailpowered trading catamaran ?
A number of core issues are facing the villageassociated with the need to generate a sustainablecash income for the village.• Kadavu is not on the main tourist routes of Fiji. Although good conservationists (community bush reserve/MPA), opportunities for eco-tourism are poor.• The village is located some distance from good gardening areas• The costs of transport for people and goods both outgoing from the village (primarily kava and honey) and incoming (basic food, building and fuel supplies) is high & increasing.
Solodamu, like most villages in Fiji is reliant on fibers andferries for transport of people and goods and for fishing.
The village had operated a small launch formany years but the vessel is now beached andin very poor repair.1n 2008 the village started asking if a sailing vessel replacement was possible.
Project Vaka FanāuaDesigner Dick NewickProjected cost: $448, 861 NZ2010costingsCapacity: 2.7 DWTType: TrimaranLength: 48’• Average 10 knots in usual trade wind conditions. A small diesel engine will give 6 to 8 knots• lug schooner rig• Specifically designed for the northern Tongan islands of Niuatoputapu, Niuafouou and Tafahi. These islands, 480km (300 miles) north of Tongatapu, closer to Samoa than to Nukuʻalofa• Wood construction, sheathed with epoxy and fiberglass,• Preferred boat builder Aaron Beatty of Lifestyle Yachts, Pipiroa.
Wharram Vaka Motu -Islander 65Only available as Buy-Onlyoption from Wharramaccredited yardsOriginally designed withoutdeckpod and with Klaar typerig for island/village use butended up as expedition/chartervessel.Capacity of 7-10 DWT.Price EUR 385k (2007 estimatefrom JWD)
Research 2008-2010 has shown such an operation is viablycommercially & will produce multi-benefits to the village and otherKadavu communities.It could be sustainable - economically, environmentally, socially andculturally.
OBJECTIVE A SUSTAINABLE SOLODAMU SAIL TRADING ENTERPRISE KORO Crew - Enterprise - ship crew owner - shore crew Social - beneficiary - managmt Vessel Trading - build? Enterprise -buy? - Coy? Econo WELL Cultural - lease? - Ltd? mic - NGO? BEING Environ mentFor additional info on this initiative:www.sailingforsustainability.org
A Fleet of ShipsBy 2010 our research said:Yes, one small village sustainably operate a sailpowered trading catamaran.BUTIt a single vessel/single village operation wouldbe a high risk venture (for a whole host ofreasons).The only way to reduce this risk is to have acentrally managed fleet
Uto Ni Yalo has proved the viability of a70+‟ blue water, double hulled sailingvessel.It is a “”Rolls Royce” machine, built usingmodern material and techniques in NZ‟spremiere boatyard.When fitted with electric/solar powermotors, it will be a totally „green ship”Asset cost is approx $FJ1m.If this is the Rolls Royce, what would a “carrier truck” version look like?The Solodamu research indicates that 50-55‟ catamarans capable ofcarrying 4 tonne or either cargo/passengers are viable economically.It also indicates there is room for a least 2-3 vessels to operatesustainably for Kadavu
The M.V. Lau Trader is the latest ferry to service the Lau group. However, thevessel size means that numerous small stops to the isolated islands are not aneconomical use of the asset.But a fleet of island based catamaran servicing 3 - 4 transport nodes looks like asound proposition, especially if we used a sustainable vessel, such as the GreenHeart Ship as the “Mother Ship”
Other logical targets for deployment of such vessels includes: Gau/Koro Rabi Taveuni Rotuma (70’ version)Fiji has a proven track record of small ship manufacture, support and maintenance infrastructure.The success of Uto ni Yalo means there is a surplus of crew asking to be trainedA centrally owned fleet, with vessels leased to village/island trading networks would provide numerous benefits to both villages and a budding boatbuilding/training industryIf successful in Fiji, it can be replicated in numerous other parts of Oceania
OWNERSHIP CREW Social VESSEL OPERATIONS Econo WELL Cultural mic BEING Environ ment
Primary Secondary ↑ sea transport options = incr village • ↑ sustainable village resilience employ/enterprise ↑ ties between communities/ kin • ↑ access to services networks •↑ collaboration between key stakeholdersPrimary•sea transport fuel ↓ Social Primary•Village transport cost ↓ •Central cultural iconSecondary •Trad knowledge/•Transport ↑ = ↑econ •practiceopportunity Secondary•Sustainable businesses Econo WELL •Develop culturally •Sailors Cultural mic appropriate business •Boatbuilders BEING • build leadership •Traders •↑ pan-Pacific•Carbon Credits collaboration Environ ment Primary Secondary •Greenhouse Gas emissions ↓ • ↑ transport options for •Carbon fuel dependency ↓ FLMMA, Fisheries, etc • ↑ Fiji’s “green” image
OPTIONS owner? partner? beneficiary client? Master/Eng Class V+ Maintenance ? Deckhands BookingsKoro Supercargo SupercargoTikina Finance, Accounting; HR;Province Marketing/promotion;State Planning; Reporting/Audit OWNERSHIP CREW - volunteer? }Private Coy -Public? - ship -salary?Franchise - shore - commission?Cooperative - Private? -management - shareholder?Independen ?t operators -auxiliary survey, training, insuNGO r, research, reporting VESSEL , mentoring, One-off? - build? OPERATIONS Production line? - buy? - Central NZ?FIJI? Kiribati? management? One size fits all? - lease? - Market targets 1. Inter-Koro/Island Multiple designs? - loan? cargo/paxAssume: - bluewater 2. Koro/Island charters- - surveyed eg church groups, - licenced weddings, schools - twin hull 3. NGO/govt charters eg - sail powered FLMMA, WWF, IUCN - cargo/pax 4. Eco/Cultural tourists - 3ton capacity e dua na nomu waqa levu, e dua na nomu vusi levu
Region FAO Organs Southam pton -SPC Maritime Govt Uni -FIMSA -MoTGreenHeartShips NGOs Research Koro -IUCN -USP Tikina -WWF FNU provinceIndustry - B9Shipping Business NGO IPCC Boatbuilders -FIVS Shipping Coys -FLMMA AusAid
Greenheart Ship – Prototype • Naval Architects - Mr. Haruhiko Kaku; Professor Takeshi Kinoshita, Mr. Peter Schenzle • 32m, 220 tonne multipurpose ship, • single A-frame mast/crane. • Primary propulsion comes from 300 m2 of sail, fore and aft riggedshallow draft design for beach landingRoll-on/roll-off port ramp, hinged justabove the waterline in the stern. It can belowered into the water for launching andshipping boats, or for handling fishinggear
Hull speed = 10-11knots, unlimited range.Auxiliary propulsion and onboardpower,• 125 m2 photovoltaic array to lead/acid battery capacity• 55 mile range under power alone.• 2x 200kW DC drive motors + bow thruster The mast/crane reaches over bow and stern for cargo handling. can be lowered to the deck in cases where low clearance or low wind resistance is necessary (e.g. going upwind and under bridges), or to allow dockside cranes to operate freely.
• Cradle to cradle design criteria = limiting toxic materials in construction.• Cost for the first vessel (projected approx) US$500,000• Due for launch later 2012/early 2013.