Functional Behavioral Assessments


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Functional Behavioral Assessments

  1. 1. Functional Behavioral Assessments Creating Opportunities for Student Success Earl E. Walker, Jr., Ed.D.
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Formal assessment of the purpose of “challenging” behavior(s) </li></ul><ul><li>A process of searching for, identifying, and examining patterns in the behavioral process (ABCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption: Behavior must be serving a purpose </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common Functions Served by Inappropriate Behaviors <ul><li>Motivation (Intensity and Direction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain attention from teachers/peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining a desired object/event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid being controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid unpleasant task(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain/exert power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get even </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensate for feeling inadequate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain acceptance and a sense of belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Functions of Behavior in Terms of Motivation <ul><li>High </li></ul><ul><li>I Student C Student A </li></ul><ul><li>n </li></ul><ul><li>t </li></ul><ul><li>e </li></ul><ul><li>n </li></ul><ul><li>s </li></ul><ul><li>i </li></ul><ul><li>t Student B </li></ul><ul><li>y </li></ul><ul><li>Low </li></ul><ul><li>Away Direction Toward </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Function of an FBA <ul><li>Federal Regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDEA/504 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FAPE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LRE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>School Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Increase opportunity for student success </li></ul>
  6. 6. Agenda <ul><li>When should an FBA be conducted? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should conduct an FBA? </li></ul><ul><li>How is an FBA conducted? </li></ul>
  7. 7. When Should an FBA be Conducted? <ul><li>Displays chronic inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior interferes with school success </li></ul><ul><li>To support projectives for 766 evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately after 10 th day of suspension </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who conducts an FBA? <ul><li>School Clinicians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With the support and participation of the “entire IEP Team” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School support personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outside clinicians and support personnel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Conducting an FBA <ul><li>Identify and define the target behavior(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify events associated with the problem behavior (context) </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Develop hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Develop intervention plan </li></ul><ul><li>Reassess behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Revise plan as needed </li></ul>
  10. 10. Behaviors in Context <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedents/Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Social, physiological, affective, cognitive, systemic, biological factors </li></ul>
  11. 11. Collecting Data/Methods of Assessment <ul><li>Indirect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of files, conduct of interviews, administer questionnaires/checklists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation and recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ABC approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time, Interval, Event, Situation sampling methods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Hypothesis Formation <ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team/School Clinician </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis Statement: predict conditions under which the targeted behavior(s) are most likely to occur (antecedents) and the reinforcing factor (consequence). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sample Hypothesis Statement <ul><li>When Robert is having trouble with a reading assignment in a large group setting (n= ), he will begin to shout profanities and sometimes throw things to avoid completing the assignment. This pattern of behavior is less likely in a small group setting or when receiving one on one assistance. However, this pattern is more likely when Robert receives little or no assistance on assignments during the day. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Behavioral Intervention Plans <ul><li>Hypothesis testing </li></ul><ul><li>Allow informed pro-active responses to inappropriate behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the need for reactive procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expulsion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detention </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Developing a BIP from an FBA <ul><li>Alter antecedents </li></ul><ul><li>Alter consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Teach replacement behaviors that serve the same function as the inappropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Modify curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Modify teaching methods/strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Modify environment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Developing a BIP from an FBA <ul><li>Identify skill deficits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select and teach appropriate replacement behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify performance deficits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide incentives (extrinsic and pairing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modify learning environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers, families, teachers, paras, other school personnel </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Evaluating the BIP <ul><li>Continuous on two levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul></ul>