lecture 3:understanding ethical issue in networking
CISB 412Social and Professional Issues Understanding Ethical Issues in Networking
Reference• Materials used in this presentation are extracted mainly from the following texts, unless stated otherwise. Michael J. Quinn “Ethics for the Information Age”, 3rd edition. Pearson 2009
Learning Outcomes• At the end of this lesson you should be able to – Identify issues that come with networking especially the use of world wide web. – Apply the ethical principles on the issues to establish morality of the action
Networking• Description• What comes with the territory? – Email SPAM – Pornography – Children and the web • Web Filters – Identity theft – Online Predators – Internet Addiction
Issues in Networking• Work in your team• Refer to the handouts and prepare for a brief presentation to address the question(s) asked
Email Spam• Email spam, 3 important attributes – anonymity: the sender’s identity and address are concealed – mass mailing: spam email is sent to a large number of recipients and in high quantities – unsolicited: the individuals receiving spam would otherwise not have opted to receive it• Amount of email that is spam has increased – 8% in 2001, 40% in 2003, More than 50% in 2004• Spam is effective – More than 100 times cheaper than “junk mail” – Profitable even if only 1 in 100,000 buys product
Email Spam• How firms get email addresses – Opt-in lists – Dictionary attacks• Spammers seek anonymity – Change email and IP addresses to disguise sending machine – Hijack another system as a spam launch pad• Spam blockers – Attempt to screen out spam – Have led to more picture-based spam
CAN SPAM Act of 2003• Took effect January 1, 2004• The law divides emails sent by business into three categories – Transactional email messages related to a commercial transaction or ongoing business that have already been established – Commercial email messages to which recipients have presumably consented (by explicitly request or by not opting out) – Unsolicited commercial email messages
CAN SPAM Act of 2003 Emails Categories Must meet these requirementsTransactional email messages • message header, sender,related to a commercial organization and informationtransaction or ongoing must be correctbusiness that have already •Must not disguise thebeen established identity of the computer from which the message was sent
CAN SPAM Act of 2003 Emails Categories Must meet these requirementsCommercial email messages •must meet all the aboveto which recipients have requirementpresumably consented (by •must inform recipient canexplicitly request or by not opt out from the mailing listopting out) •Must provide internet based mechanism to opt out •Must contain postal address of the sender
CAN SPAM Act of 2003 Emails Categories Must meet these requirementsUnsolicited commercial email • must meet all the abovemessages requirement • must include clear notice that it is an advertisement • if it contains explicit materialism must include in the subject line
CAN SPAM Act of 2003• Critics call it “You CAN Spam Act” – Spam still legal, as long as regulations followed – Opting out can have harmful consequences – it confirms your email is valid – Spammers can avoid prosecution by locating outside United States
World Wide WebHow we use it?• Shopping• Promoting business• Learning• Exploring our roots• Playing games• Entering virtual worlds• Paying taxes• Gambling• Blogging• Lots more!
Apparent issues with WWWPornography• Description - Printed or visual material containing the explicit description or display of sexual organs or activity.• Different opinions – Pornography is immoral (How do you explain that from Kantianism viewpoints?) – Adult pornography is moral (How do you explain that from Utilitarianism viewpoints?)
Apparent issues with WWW• Censorship : An attempt to suppress or regulate public access to material considered offensive or harmful.• Direct censorship – Government monopolization – Pre-publication review – Licensing and registration• Self-censorship — A group deciding for itself not to publish material • What are the benefits and harms of Internet censorship?
Apparent issues with WWWChildren and the Web• Many parents believe they ought to protect their children from exposure to pornographic and violent materials on the Web – Web Filters – Child Internet Protection Act • Libraries receiving federal networking funds must filter pages containing obscenity or child pornography • How do you see this Act from act utilitarianism viewpoints?
Apparent issues with WWWBreaking Trust• Identity Theft• Chat Room Predator• False Information
Apparent issues with WWWInternet Addiction• Is it real?• Factors contributing to addictive behavior• Some liken compulsive computer use to pathological gambling• Traditional definition of addiction: – Compulsive use of harmful substance or drug – Knowledge of its long-term harm