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HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
HR Post Employment
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HR Post Employment

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  1. HR: POST EMPLOYMENT Presented by Kyle Cox LIBR 204/286
  2. HR: Post Employment • Covers the following topic areas: – orientation and training – change and transitions – staff development – supervision – performance appraisal – succession management
  3. Transition to Supervision • Often promoted due to performance, with little training/preparation – High performance not necessarily a qualifier for a good supervisor (Kay, 1961) • Key tasks to master as you transition to new role… – Establishing a positive relationship with your employees – Let go of the old job – Set a good example – Perform the job with your own style – Give recognition to employees – Support the employees Kumagai & Kleiner, 1995
  4. Communication in Supervision Leadership may be considered a form of competent communication composed of messages containing both affective and cognitive strategies (Hall & Lord, 1995). ― Need to supervise/lead by negotiation – Salacuse, 2007 ― Perceived communicator competence tied to subordinate satisfaction with supervisor; satisfaction positively related to performance ― Berman and Hellweg, 1989; Gruneberg, 1979; Richmond, McCroskey, Davis, & Koontz, 1980 ― Interpersonal interactions/communications (or lack thereof) have significant impact on employees ― Korte and Wynne,1996; Pincus, 1986; Postmes, Tanis, & de Wit, 2001; Ray & Miller, 1994.
  5. Coaching in Supervision — Individualized instruction, guidance; unstructured, developmental process; one-on-one feedback and guidance — Heslin, VandeWalle, & Latham, 2006; Argote & McGrath, 1993 — Examples of coaching in supervision — Agarwal et al., 2009; Heslin et al., 2006; Ellinger, Ellinger, & Keller, 2003; Kraiger, Ford, & Salas, 1993; Locke & Latham, 1990. — Coaching v. Mentoring v. Tutoring — Chao, 1997; D’Abate, Eddy, & Tannenbaum, 2003
  6. Key Roles/Functions • First-level supervisors: One-to-one with Subordinates – Managing individual performance 1. Motivate subordinates to change or improve their performance. 2. Provide ongoing performance feedback to subordinates. 3. Take action to resolve performance problems in supervisor’s work group. 4. Blend subordinates' goals (e.g., career goals, work performances) with company's work requirements. 5. Identify ways of improving communications among subordinates. – Instructing subordinates • Areas for development include: individually focused supervision, motivation, career planning, and performance feedback Kraut, Pedigo, McKenna, & Dunnette, 1989
  7. Key Roles/Functions • Middle Managers: Linking Groups – Planning and allocating resources – Coordinating interdependent groups – Managing group performance • Areas for development include: effective group and intergroup work, group-level performance indicators; diagnosing and resolving problems within and among work groups; negotiating with peers and superiors; and designing and implementing reward systems. Kraut, Pedigo, McKenna, & Dunnette, 1989
  8. An Alternate Path? • Self-managed work teams – Members working collaboratively to make team decisions such as hiring, firing, scheduling, and determining operating procedures (Romig, 1996; Wellins et al, 1990) – Work well when… • Tasks within unit are interdependent • Employees are multi-skilled • Employees already have high-level of self-management • Organizational structures & decision-making is decentralized • Culture is consistent with participation and empowerment • Organization is willing to commit long-term for team development Tata & Prasad, 2004; Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw, 2003
  9. An Alternate Path? • Self-managed work teams – Can increase team effectiveness (Deci et al, 1990; Lawler, 1986; Manz, 1992) – Organizational structure, decision-making process have major impact on effectiveness (or lack thereof) of self-managed teams (Tata & Prasad, 2004) – Keys to success in self-managed teams include organization loosening control systems, removing unnecessary bureaucratic procedures, and providing near continuous information on performance. (Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw, 2003)
  10. Employee Commitment • Role supervisors play in shaping commitment – Supervisors play important role T. E. Becker, 1992; T. E. Becker, Billings, Eveleth, & Gilbert, 1996; Reichers, 1986 – Negative interactions versus positive interactions Miner, Glomb, & Hulin, 2005 – Effects of quality relationship with subordinates Harris & Kacmar, 2005; Harris, Harris, & Harvey, 2008
  11. Employee Commitment • Affective Commitment An emotional attachment to, involvement in, and identification with the organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991) – Supervisors are instrumental Stinglhamber & Vandenberghe, 2003 – Based on social exchange processes and support Blau, 1964; Rhoades, Eisenberger, & Armeli, 2001 – Best predictor of organizational turnover Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L., 2002
  12. Employee Commitment • Normative Commitment A sense of loyalty driven by a feeling of obligation toward the organization. (Meyer & Allen, 1991) – Typically formed prior to organizational entry Wiener, 1982
  13. Employee Commitment • Continuance Commitment An attachment derived from the recognition of the costs associated with leaving and/or the perception of a lack of employment alternatives. (Meyer & Allen, 1991) – Negative feelings, effects associated with this form of commitment Landry, Panaccio, & Vandenberghe, 2010; Mignonac and Herrbach, 2004; Donovan, 2003; Irving & Coleman, 2003; King & Sethi, 1997. – Cost of leaving versus perceived lack of alternatives Vandenberghe et al., 2007; Meyer & Allen, 1991; Becker, 1960.
  14. Employee Behaviors To build and retain an acceptable employee behavior, a supervisor must first identify what type of behavior an individual employee is displaying. A. Can't-Will. This employee can't perform the work, but will try. B. Can't-Won't. This employee can't perform the job and won't perform the job. C. Can-Will. This employee has the skills and is proud to perform the work. D. Can-Won't. This employee has the skills, but does not want to perform the job. Staffieri, 2006
  15. Works Cited • Agarwal R, Angst CM, Magni M. (2009). The performance impacts of coaching: A multilevel analysis using hierarchical linear modeling. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20, 2110-2134. Argote L, McGrath JE. (1993). Group processes in organizations: Continuity and change. In Cooper CL, Robertson IT (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 333-389). New York: John Wiley & Sons. • Becker, H. S. (1960). Notes on the concept of commitment. American Journal of Sociology, 66, 32– 42. • Becker, T.E. (1992), “Foci and bases of commitment: Are they distinctions worth making?”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 35, pp. 232-44. • Becker, T.E., Billings, R.S., Eveleth, D.M. and Gilbert, N.L. (1996), “Foci and bases of employee commitment: Implications for job performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39 No. 2, pp. 464-82. • Berman, S., & Hellweg, S. (1989). Perceived Supervisor Communication Competence and Supervisor Satisfaction as a Function of Quality Circle Participation. Journal of Business Communication, 26(2), 103-122. • Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley. • Chao GT. (1997). Unstructured training and development: The role of organizational socialization. In Ford JK, Kozlowski SWJ, Kraiger K, Salas E, Teachout MS (Eds.), Improving training effectiveness in work organizations (pp. 129-151). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  16. Works Cited • D’Abate CP, Eddy ER, Tannenbaum SI. (2003). Whats in the name? A literature-based approach to understanding mentoring, coaching, and other constructs that describe developmental interactions. Human Resource Development Review, 2, 360-384. • Deci, E. L.,J. P. Connell and R. M. Ryau. 1990. "Self-Determination in a Work Organization." yo«ma/ of Applied Psychology 74: 580-590 • Donovan, J. (2003). The effect of workplace stress on job satisfaction, burnout, commitment, discouragement, and intent to leave among nurses employed in rural hospitals. PhD dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA. • Ellinger AD, Ellinger AE, Keller SB. (2003). Supervisory coaching behavior, employee satisfaction, and warehouse employee performance: A dyadic perspective in the distribution industry. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14, 435-458. Fisher, D., Schoenfeldt, L., Shaw, B. (2003) Human Resource Management, Fifth Edition. (pp. 439- 443) New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. • Gruneberg, M. M. (1979). Understanding job satisfaction. New York: John Wiley. • Heslin PA, VandeWalle D, Latham GP. (2006). Keen to help? Managers implicit person theories and their subsequent employee coaching. Personnel Psychology, 59, 871-902.
  17. Works Cited • Irving, P. G., & Coleman, D. F. (2003). The moderating effect of different forms of commitment on role ambiguity-job tension relations. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 20, 97–106. • King, R. C., & Sethi, V. (1997). The moderating effect of organizational commitment on burnout in information systems professionals. European Journal of Information Systems, 6, 86–96. • Korte, W. B., & Wynne, R. (1996). Telework: Penetration, potential and practice in Europe. Amsterdam: Ohmsha Press. • Kraiger K, Ford JK, Salas E. (1993). Integration of cognitive, behavioral, and affective theories of learning into new methods of training evaluation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 311-328. Kraut, A., Pedigo, P., McKenna, D., & Dunnette, M. (2005). The role of the manager: What's really important in different management jobs. Academy of Management Executive, 19(4), 122-129. • Kumagai, B., & Kleiner, B. (1995). Managing the transition to supervision. Work Study, 44(1), 8-10. • Landry, G., Panaccio, A., & Vandenberghe, C. (2010). Dimensionality and Consequences of Employee Commitment to Supervisors: A Two-Study Examination. Journal of Psychology, 144(3), 285-312. • Lawler, E. E., III. 1986. High Involvement Management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  18. Works Cited • Liu, X., & Batt, R. (2010). How supervisors influence performance: a multilevel study of coaching and group management in technology-mediated services. Personnel Psychology, 63(2), 265-298. • Locke EA, Latham GP. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Manz, C. C. 1992. "Self-Leading Work Teams: Moving Beyond Self-Management Myths." Human Relations 45: 1119-1139. • Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. • Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20–52. • Mignonac, K., & Herrbach, O. (2004). Linking work events, affective states, and attitudes: An empirical study of manager’s emotions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 19, 221–240. • Pincus, J. D. (1986). Communication satisfaction, job satisfaction and job performance. Human Communication Research, 12, 395-419.
  19. Works Cited • Postmes, T., Tanis, M.,& de Wit, B. (2001). Communication and commitment in organizations: A social identity approach. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 4, 227-246. • Ray, E. B., & Miller, K. I. (1994). Social support: Home/work stress and burnout: Who can help? Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 30, 357-373. • Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836. • Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (2000). The impact of supervisor and subordinate immediacy on relational and organizational outcomes. Communication Monographs, 67, 85-95. • Romig, D. A. 1996. Breakthrough Teamwork: Outstanding Results Using Structured Teamwork. Chicago, IL: Irwin. • Salacuse, J. (2007). Real Leaders Negotiate. Harvard Management Update, 12(6), 2-3. • Staffieri, N. (2006). managing the four employee behaviors. Supervision, 67(12), 3-5.
  20. Works Cited • Stinglhamber, F., & Vandenberghe, C. (2003). Organizations and supervisors as sources of support and targets of commitment: A longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 251–270. • Tata, J., & Prasad, S. (2004). Team Self-management, Organizational Structure, and Judgments of Team Effectiveness. Journal of Managerial Issues, 16(2), 248-265. • Vandenberghe, C., Bentein, K.,Michon, R., Chebat, J., Tremblay,M., & Fils, J. (2007). An examination of the role of perceived support and employee commitment in employee customer encounters. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1177–1187. • Wellins, R. S., R. Wilson, A.J. Katz, P. Laughlin, C. R. Dayjr. and D. Price. 1990. Self- Directed Team^: A Study of Current Practices. Pittsbtirgh, PA: DDI. • Wiener, Y. (1982). Commitment in organizations: A normative view. Academy of Management Review, 7, 418–428.

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