HR: POST EMPLOYMENT
Presented by Kyle Cox
HR: Post Employment
• Covers the following topic areas:
– orientation and training
– change and transitions
– staff development
– performance appraisal
– succession management
Transition to Supervision
• Often promoted due to performance, with little training/preparation
– High performance not necessarily a qualifier for a good supervisor (Kay, 1961)
• Key tasks to master as you transition to new role…
– Establishing a positive relationship with your employees
– Let go of the old job
– Set a good example
– Perform the job with your own style
– Give recognition to employees
– Support the employees
Kumagai & Kleiner, 1995
Communication in Supervision
Leadership may be considered a form of competent communication composed
of messages containing both affective and cognitive strategies (Hall & Lord,
― Need to supervise/lead by negotiation
– Salacuse, 2007
― Perceived communicator competence tied to subordinate satisfaction with
supervisor; satisfaction positively related to performance
― Berman and Hellweg, 1989; Gruneberg, 1979; Richmond, McCroskey, Davis, & Koontz, 1980
― Interpersonal interactions/communications (or lack thereof) have significant impact on
― Korte and Wynne,1996; Pincus, 1986; Postmes, Tanis, & de Wit, 2001; Ray & Miller, 1994.
Coaching in Supervision
— Individualized instruction, guidance; unstructured, developmental
process; one-on-one feedback and guidance
— Heslin, VandeWalle, & Latham, 2006; Argote & McGrath, 1993
— Examples of coaching in supervision
— Agarwal et al., 2009; Heslin et al., 2006; Ellinger, Ellinger, & Keller, 2003; Kraiger, Ford, & Salas, 1993; Locke & Latham,
— Coaching v. Mentoring v. Tutoring
— Chao, 1997; D’Abate, Eddy, & Tannenbaum, 2003
• First-level supervisors: One-to-one with Subordinates
– Managing individual performance
1. Motivate subordinates to change or improve their performance.
2. Provide ongoing performance feedback to subordinates.
3. Take action to resolve performance problems in supervisor’s work group.
4. Blend subordinates' goals (e.g., career goals, work performances) with company's work requirements.
5. Identify ways of improving communications among subordinates.
– Instructing subordinates
• Areas for development include: individually focused supervision, motivation, career
planning, and performance feedback
Kraut, Pedigo, McKenna, & Dunnette, 1989
• Middle Managers: Linking Groups
– Planning and allocating resources
– Coordinating interdependent groups
– Managing group performance
• Areas for development include: effective group and intergroup work, group-level
performance indicators; diagnosing and resolving problems within and among
work groups; negotiating with peers and superiors; and designing and
implementing reward systems.
Kraut, Pedigo, McKenna, & Dunnette, 1989
An Alternate Path?
• Self-managed work teams
– Members working collaboratively to make team decisions such as hiring, firing, scheduling, and
determining operating procedures (Romig, 1996; Wellins et al, 1990)
– Work well when…
• Tasks within unit are interdependent
• Employees are multi-skilled
• Employees already have high-level of self-management
• Organizational structures & decision-making is decentralized
• Culture is consistent with participation and empowerment
• Organization is willing to commit long-term for team development
Tata & Prasad, 2004; Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw, 2003
An Alternate Path?
• Self-managed work teams
– Can increase team effectiveness (Deci et al, 1990; Lawler, 1986; Manz, 1992)
– Organizational structure, decision-making process have major impact on effectiveness (or lack
thereof) of self-managed teams (Tata & Prasad, 2004)
– Keys to success in self-managed teams include organization loosening control systems, removing
unnecessary bureaucratic procedures, and providing near continuous information on performance.
(Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw, 2003)
• Role supervisors play in shaping commitment
– Supervisors play important role
T. E. Becker, 1992; T. E. Becker, Billings, Eveleth, & Gilbert, 1996; Reichers, 1986
– Negative interactions versus positive interactions
Miner, Glomb, & Hulin, 2005
– Effects of quality relationship with subordinates
Harris & Kacmar, 2005; Harris, Harris, & Harvey, 2008
• Affective Commitment
An emotional attachment to, involvement in, and identification with the
organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991)
– Supervisors are instrumental
Stinglhamber & Vandenberghe, 2003
– Based on social exchange processes and support
Blau, 1964; Rhoades, Eisenberger, & Armeli, 2001
– Best predictor of organizational turnover
Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L., 2002
• Normative Commitment
A sense of loyalty driven by a feeling of obligation toward the organization.
(Meyer & Allen, 1991)
– Typically formed prior to organizational entry
• Continuance Commitment
An attachment derived from the recognition of the costs associated with
leaving and/or the perception of a lack of employment alternatives. (Meyer &
– Negative feelings, effects associated with this form of commitment
Landry, Panaccio, & Vandenberghe, 2010; Mignonac and Herrbach, 2004; Donovan, 2003; Irving &
Coleman, 2003; King & Sethi, 1997.
– Cost of leaving versus perceived lack of alternatives
Vandenberghe et al., 2007; Meyer & Allen, 1991; Becker, 1960.
To build and retain an acceptable employee behavior, a supervisor must first
identify what type of behavior an individual employee is displaying.
A. Can't-Will. This employee can't perform the work, but will try.
B. Can't-Won't. This employee can't perform the job and won't perform the job.
C. Can-Will. This employee has the skills and is proud to perform the work.
D. Can-Won't. This employee has the skills, but does not want to perform the
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