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Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
Pericardium
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Pericardium

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  • 1. www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  • 2. PERICARDIUM
  • 3. PERICARDIUM
    • Layers:
    • 1. FIBROUS PERICARDIUM
    • 2. SEROUS PERICARDIUM
    • A. PARIETAL LAYER
    • B. VISCERAL LAYER (EPICARDIUM)
  • 4.  
  • 5. PERICARDIUM
    • Arterial Supply:
    • 1. Musculophrenic Artery – from Internal Thoracic Artery
    • 2. Bronchial, Esophageal & Superior Phrenic Arteries – from Descending Thoracic Aorta
    • 3. Coronary Artery
    • Venous Drainage:
    • 1. Pericardiophrenic Vein
    • 2. Azygos Venous System
  • 6. PERICARDIUM
    • Nerve Supply:
    • 1. Phrenic Nerves – 60 – 70% sensory
    • 2. Vagus Nerves
    • 3. Sympathetic Trunk - vasomotor
  • 7. THE HEART
  • 8. HEART
    • Layers:
    • 1. ENDOCARDIUM - endothelium
    • endothelial connective tissue
    • 2. MYOCARDIUM - striated involuntary cardiac muscle
    • 3. EPICARDIUM - external layer (mesothelium)
    • visceral layer of serous pericardium
  • 9. HEART
    • FIBROUS CARDIAC SKELETON
    • - keeps AV and SL valves patent
    • - attachments for leaflets & cusps of valves
    • - attachment of myocardium
    • - electrical insulator
  • 10. HEART
    • Parts:
    • APEX - inferolateral part of LV
    • APEX BEAT – located behind 5 th left ICS & 9 cms from median plane
    • BASE - posterior aspect formed by left atrium
      • - receives the pulmonary veins, SVC & IVC
  • 11. HEART
    • 3. SURFACES
    • a. Diaphragmatic Surface (Inferior)
    • – left ventricle
    • b. Sternocostal Surface (Anterior)
    • - right ventricle
    • c. Pulmonary Surface (Left)
    • – left ventricle
    • 4. BORDERS
    • a. Right Border – Rt. Atrium bet. SVC & IVC
    • b. Inferior Border – Right Ventricle
    • c. Left Border – Left Ventricle & Left auricle
    • d. Superior Border – Rt. & Lt. Atria & auricles
  • 12. CARDIAC CHAMBERS
    • A. RIGHT ATRIUM
    • - receives venous blood from SVC, IVC & CS
    • - “Auricle” increases capacity
    • Parts:
    • 1. Sinus Venarum
    • thin-walled posterior part
    • opening of SVC, IVC & CS
    • 2. Pectinate muscles
    • rough muscular ant wall
    • 3. Right Atrioventricular Orifice
  • 13. CARDIAC CHAMBERS
    • Anatomic Features of Left Atrium:
    • SULCUS TERMINALIS
    • CRISTAL TERMINALIS
    • INTERATRIAL SYSTEM – Fossa Ovalis
  • 14. CARDIAC CHAMBERS
    • B. RIGHT VENTRICLE
    • - largest part of ant. surface
    • - small part of diaphragmatic surface
    • - mainly forms the inferior border
    • CONUS ARTERIOSUS
    • TRABECULAE CARNAE
  • 15. CARDIAC CHAMBERS
    • C. LEFT ATRIUM
    • - forms the base of the heart
    • - smooth inner wall with smaller auricle
    • - posterior part receives the
    • 4 pulmonary veins
    • - slightly thicker wall than the right atrium
  • 16. CARDIAC CHAMBERS
    • D. LEFT VENTRICLE
    • - forms the cardiac apex &
    • all of pulmonary surface
    • - forms most of diaphragmatic surface
    • - walls 2x thicker than the right ventricle
    • - trabeculae carnae finer & more numerous
    • - conical cavity is much longer
    • - larger papillary muscles
  • 17. CARDIAC VALVES
    • A. TRICUSPID VALVE
    • guards the left AV orifice
    • anterior, posterior & septal cusps
    • Features:
    • Chordae Tendinae
    • Papillary Muscles
    • Interventricular Septum
    • Septomarginal Trabeculae (Moderator Band)
  • 18. CARDIAC VALVES
    • B. PULMONARY VALVE (SEMILUNAR)
    • - at level w/ 3 rd L costal cart
    • - anterior, right & left cusps
    • **Pulmonary Sinus
    • C. MITRAL VALVE (BICUSPID)
    • - at level w/ 4 th L costal cart
    • - anterior & posterior cusps
    • D. AORTIC VALVE
    • - at level w/ 3 rd L ICS
    • - has three cusps
  • 19. CORONARY CIRCULATION
    • ARTERIAL SUPPLY:
    • RIGHT & LEFT CORONARY ARTERIES
    • - first branches of aorta
    • - supply the epicardium & myocardium
    • - from the ascending aorta
    • just above the aortic valve
  • 20. CORONARY CIRCULATION
    • RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY
    • - runs thru the AV groove
    • Branches:
    • 1. SINOATRIAL NODAL BRANCH
    • 2. RIGHT MARGINAL BRANCH
    • 3. AV NODAL BRANCH
    • 4. POSTERIOR IV BRANCH
    • Areas Supplied:
    • 1. Right Atrium
    • 2. Most of Right Ventricle
    • 3. Part of SA Node & AV Node
  • 21. CORONARY CIRCULATION
    • LEFT CORONARY ARTERY
    • - passes between the L auricle
    • & pulmonary trunk in the coronary groove
    • Branches:
    • CIRCUMFLEX BRANCH
    • => Left Marginal Artery
    • - supplies the left ventricle
    • ANT. INTERVENTRICULAR Br.
    • - runs along IV groove to apex
    • - anastomosis with the
    • Post. IV branch
    • - gives off Diagonal Branch – anterior surface
  • 22. CORONARY CIRCULATION
    • AREAS SUPPLIED BY THE LEFT CORONARY ARTERY
    • 1. Left Atrium
    • 2. Most of Left Ventricle
    • 3. Part of Right Ventricle
    • 4. Most of Interventricular Septum
    • 5. SinoAtrial Node in 40% of cases
  • 23. CORONARY CIRCULATION
    • VENOUS DRAINAGE
    • CORONARY SINUS
    • Tributaries:
    • 1. GREAT CARDIAC VEIN
    • (Anterior IV Vein)
    • 2. MIDDLE CARDIAC VEIN (Posterior IV Vein)
    • 3. SMALL CARDIAC VEIN
    • 4. LEFT POST VENTRICULAR VEIN
    • 5. LEFT MARGINAL VEIN
  • 24.  
  • 25. CARDIAC CONDUCTING SYSTEM
    • SINOATRIAL NODE (Cardiac Pacemaker)
    • - located in the epicardium b/w SVC & Right Atrium
    • - 70 beats/min
    • - triggers contraction of both atria
    • - controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System (Cardiac Plexus)
    • Sympathetics - increases cardiac rate
    • Parasympathetics – decreases cardiac rate
  • 26. CARDIAC CONDUCTING SYSTEM
    • ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE
    • - located at posteroinferior region of Interatrial septum
    • near opening of coronary sinus
    • - follows a myogenic conduction
    • - AV Bundles  Right & Left Bundles
    • - Purkinje Fibers (Subendocardial Branches)
  • 27. It’s FREE to join. http://www.examville.com

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