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Gluteal Region
 

Gluteal Region

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    Gluteal Region Gluteal Region Presentation Transcript

    • www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
    • GLUTEAL REGION
    • GLUTEAL REGION
      • Boundaries:
      • Superior = Iliac Crests
      • Inferior = Inferior Gluteal Folds
      • Lateral = Sides of the Thigh
      • Medial = Intergluteal Canal
    • MUSCLES
      • Gluteus maximus
      • action = extends & laterally rotates thigh
      • Nerve = Inferior gluteal nerve
      • Gluteus medius
      • Gluteus minimus
      • Tensor fasciae latae
      • Action: Abducts & medially rotate the thigh
      • Nerve: Superior Gluteal Nerve
    • MUSCLES
      • Piriformis*
      • Obturator internus**
      • Gemellus superior**
      • Gemellus inferior***
      • Quaratus femoris***
      • Common Action:
      • Laterally rotates the thigh
      • Innervation:
      • * S1 & S2 of Sacral Plexus
      • ** Nerve to Obturator internus
      • *** Nerve to Quadratus femoris
    • NERVES - derived from the Lumbosacral Plexus (L4, L5, S1, S2, & S3)
      • SUPERIOR GLUTEAL NERVE (L4, L5 & S1)
      • - emerges thru GSF above piriformis muscle
      • - runs b/w g.medius & minimus w/ superior gluteal artery
      • - supplies: G. medius, G. minimus, T. fasciae latae & Hip joint
      • INFERIOR GLUTEAL NERVE (L5, S1 & S2)
      • - emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle
      • - runs w/ inferior gluteal artery
      • - supplies: Gluteus maximus
    • NERVES
      • SCIATIC NERVE (L4, L5, S1, S2, & S3)
      • - largest branch of LS plexus & largest nerve of the body
      • - emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle
      • *NO BRANCHES IN THE GLUTEAL REGION
      • Branches: TIBIAL NERVE
      • COMMON PERONEAL NERVE
      • POSTERIOR FEMORAL CUTANEOUS NERVE (S1, S2 & S3)
      • - emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle
      • - supplies skin of: buttocks, posterior thigh, popliteal fossa & external genitalia
    • NERVES
      • NERVE TO OBTURATOR INTERNUS (L5, S1 & S2)
      • - emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle
      • - supplies: Gemellus superior & Obturator internus
      • NERVE TO QUADRATUS FEMORIS (L4, L5 & S1)
      • - enters gluteal region thru GSF below piriformis muscle
      • - supplies: Gemellus inferior & Quadratus femoris
      • PUDENDAL NERVE (S2, S3, & S4)
      • - emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle
      • - no branch in gluteal region
      • - supplies: Perineum
    •  
    • BLOOD VESSELS
      • SUPERIOR GLUTEAL ARTERY
      • - largest branch of the Internal Iliac Artery
      • - emerges thru GSF above piriformis muscle
      • Branches: Superficial Branch = Gluteus maximus
      • Deep Branch = Gluteus medius & minimus
      • INFERIOR GLUTEAL ARTERY
      • - from Internal Iliac Artery
      • - emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle
      • - supplies: Gluteal & Hamstring Muscles & Hip Joint
    •  
    • BLOOD VESSELS
      • INTERNAL PUDENDAL ARTERY
      • - emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle
      • - no branch in gluteal region
      • - supplies: Perineum
      • GLUTEAL VEINS
      • - usually double & accompany corresponding artery
      • - drains into Internal iliac Veins
      • - communicates with tributaries of Femoral Vein
      • (Alternate Pathway)
    • IMPORTANT ANATOMIC FEATURES
      • SACROTUBEROUS LIGAMENT
      • - connects posterior iliac spine,
      • lower sacrum & coccyx to ischial tuberosity
      • - forms medial border of GSF & LSF
      • SACROSPINOUS LIGAMENT
      • - connects posterior surface of
      • sacrum & coccyx to ischial spine
      • - separates the GSF from the LSF
      • GREATER SCIATIC FORAMEN
      • LESSER SCIATIC FORAMEN
      • - formed by Sacrotuberous & Sacrospinous ligament
      • - filled with muscles, nerves & blood vessels
      • GREATER SCIATIC FORAMEN transmits the ffg:
      • - Piriformis - Internal Pudendal Artery
      • - Sciatic Nerve - Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve
      • - Superior Gluteal N, A & V - Nerve to Obturator internus
      • - Inferior Gluteal N, A & V - Nerve to Quadratus femoris
      • - Pudendal Nerve
      • LESSER SCIATIC FORAMEN transmits the ffg:
      • - Tendon of obturator internus
      • - Nerve to obturator internus
      • - Pudendal Nerve
      • - Internal Pudendal Artery & Vein
    •  
    • HIP JOINT
      • - Synovial (Ball and Socket) joint b/w femoral head and acetabulum
      • - Links the lower extremity to the pelvic girdle
      • - most often disclocated posteriorly after a severe force to the knee
      • Movements: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction,
      • medial & lateral rotation
      • Blood Supply: SGA, IGA, Medial & Lateral Femoral Circumflex Arteries
      • Innervation: Femoral & Obeturator Nerves
    • HIP JOINT
      • Anatomic Characteristics:
      • LABRUM ACETABULARE
      • - fibrocatilagenous rim
      • - deepens the acetabulum
      • - forms the Transverse Acetabular Ligament (TAL)
      • FIBROUS CAPSULE
      • - restricts free movement
      • - encloses femoral head & neck
      • - proximally attached to acetabulum & TAL
      • - distally attached to greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line & base of the neck
    •  
    • LIGAMENTS of THE HIP JOINT
      • ILIOFEMORAL LIGAMENT
      • - strongest & most important ligament of hip joint
      • - inverted Y reinforcing the fibrous capsule anteriorly
      • - attachments: Proximal = ASIS
      • Distal = Intertrochanteric Line
      • - function: Resists Hyperextension & Medial Rotation of the Hip
      • ISCHIOFEMORAL LIGAMENT
      • - supports the posterior part of Hip joint
      • - thinnest hip joint ligament
      • - attachments: Proximal = Ischium
      • Distal = Base of Femoral Neck
      • - function: Resists Extension and Medial Rotation of the Hip
    • LIGAMENTS of THE HIP JOINT
      • PUBOFEMORAL LIGAMENT
      • - support anterior & inferior part of Hip joint
      • - attachments: Proximal = Pubis
      • Distal = Base of Femoral Neck
      • - function: Resists excessive Abduction of the Hip
      • LIGAMENT OF THE FEMORAL HEAD
      • (LIGAMENTUM TERES FEMORIS)
      • - attachments: fovea of femoral head to TAL &
      • margins of the acetabular notch
      • - function: Resists Abduction of the Hip in children
      • Transmits Artery to the Femoral Head
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    • POSTERIOR THIGH COMPARTMENT
    • MUSCLES
      • HAMSTRING GROUP
      • SEMITENDINOSUS*
      • SEMIMEMBRANOSUS*
      • BICEPS FEMORIS
      • Long Head*
      • Short Head**
      • Functions:
      • Extensors of the thigh
      • Flexors of the leg
      • Innervation:
      • * TIBIAL NERVE (L5, S1 & S2)
      • ** COMMON FIBULAR (PERONEAL) NERVE (L5,S1 & S2)
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