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GLUTEAL  REGION
GLUTEAL  REGION   <ul><li>Boundaries:   </li></ul><ul><li>Superior  =  Iliac  Crests </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior  =  Inferi...
MUSCLES <ul><li>Gluteus  maximus </li></ul><ul><li>action  =  extends & laterally  rotates thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve  ...
MUSCLES <ul><li>Piriformis* </li></ul><ul><li>Obturator internus** </li></ul><ul><li>Gemellus superior**  </li></ul><ul><l...
NERVES   -  derived from the Lumbosacral  Plexus     (L4, L5, S1, S2, & S3) <ul><li>SUPERIOR GLUTEAL NERVE   (L4, L5 & S1)...
NERVES <ul><li>SCIATIC  NERVE   (L4, L5, S1, S2, & S3) </li></ul><ul><li>-  largest branch of  LS  plexus  & largest nerve...
NERVES <ul><li>NERVE  TO  OBTURATOR  INTERNUS   (L5, S1 & S2) </li></ul><ul><li>-  emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscl...
 
BLOOD  VESSELS <ul><li>SUPERIOR  GLUTEAL  ARTERY </li></ul><ul><li>-  largest branch of the Internal Iliac  Artery </li></...
 
BLOOD  VESSELS <ul><li>INTERNAL  PUDENDAL  ARTERY </li></ul><ul><li>-  emerges thru GSF  below piriformis muscle </li></ul...
IMPORTANT ANATOMIC FEATURES <ul><li>SACROTUBEROUS  LIGAMENT </li></ul><ul><li>-  connects posterior iliac spine, </li></ul...
<ul><li>GREATER SCIATIC FORAMEN </li></ul><ul><li>LESSER SCIATIC FORAMEN </li></ul><ul><li>-  formed by Sacrotuberous & Sa...
<ul><li>LESSER  SCIATIC FORAMEN   transmits the ffg: </li></ul><ul><li>-  Tendon of obturator internus </li></ul><ul><li>-...
 
HIP  JOINT <ul><li>- Synovial (Ball and Socket) joint b/w femoral head and acetabulum </li></ul><ul><li>- Links the lower ...
HIP  JOINT <ul><li>Anatomic Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>LABRUM ACETABULARE </li></ul><ul><li>-  fibrocatilagenous r...
 
LIGAMENTS of THE HIP JOINT <ul><li>ILIOFEMORAL  LIGAMENT </li></ul><ul><li>-  strongest & most important ligament of hip j...
LIGAMENTS of THE HIP JOINT <ul><li>PUBOFEMORAL  LIGAMENT </li></ul><ul><li>-  support anterior & inferior part of Hip join...
 
 
 
 
 
POSTERIOR THIGH COMPARTMENT
MUSCLES <ul><li>HAMSTRING  GROUP </li></ul><ul><li>SEMITENDINOSUS* </li></ul><ul><li>SEMIMEMBRANOSUS* </li></ul><ul><li>BI...
 
 
 
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Gluteal Region

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Gluteal Region

  1. 1. www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  2. 2. GLUTEAL REGION
  3. 3. GLUTEAL REGION <ul><li>Boundaries: </li></ul><ul><li>Superior = Iliac Crests </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior = Inferior Gluteal Folds </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral = Sides of the Thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Medial = Intergluteal Canal </li></ul>
  4. 4. MUSCLES <ul><li>Gluteus maximus </li></ul><ul><li>action = extends & laterally rotates thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve = Inferior gluteal nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus medius </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus minimus </li></ul><ul><li>Tensor fasciae latae </li></ul><ul><li>Action: Abducts & medially rotate the thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve: Superior Gluteal Nerve </li></ul>
  5. 5. MUSCLES <ul><li>Piriformis* </li></ul><ul><li>Obturator internus** </li></ul><ul><li>Gemellus superior** </li></ul><ul><li>Gemellus inferior*** </li></ul><ul><li>Quaratus femoris*** </li></ul><ul><li>Common Action: </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally rotates the thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Innervation: </li></ul><ul><li> * S1 & S2 of Sacral Plexus </li></ul><ul><li> ** Nerve to Obturator internus </li></ul><ul><li>*** Nerve to Quadratus femoris </li></ul>
  6. 6. NERVES - derived from the Lumbosacral Plexus (L4, L5, S1, S2, & S3) <ul><li>SUPERIOR GLUTEAL NERVE (L4, L5 & S1) </li></ul><ul><li>- emerges thru GSF above piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- runs b/w g.medius & minimus w/ superior gluteal artery </li></ul><ul><li>- supplies: G. medius, G. minimus, T. fasciae latae & Hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>INFERIOR GLUTEAL NERVE (L5, S1 & S2) </li></ul><ul><li>- emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- runs w/ inferior gluteal artery </li></ul><ul><li>- supplies: Gluteus maximus </li></ul>
  7. 7. NERVES <ul><li>SCIATIC NERVE (L4, L5, S1, S2, & S3) </li></ul><ul><li>- largest branch of LS plexus & largest nerve of the body </li></ul><ul><li>- emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>*NO BRANCHES IN THE GLUTEAL REGION </li></ul><ul><li> Branches: TIBIAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON PERONEAL NERVE </li></ul><ul><li>POSTERIOR FEMORAL CUTANEOUS NERVE (S1, S2 & S3) </li></ul><ul><li>- emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- supplies skin of: buttocks, posterior thigh, popliteal fossa & external genitalia </li></ul>
  8. 8. NERVES <ul><li>NERVE TO OBTURATOR INTERNUS (L5, S1 & S2) </li></ul><ul><li>- emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- supplies: Gemellus superior & Obturator internus </li></ul><ul><li>NERVE TO QUADRATUS FEMORIS (L4, L5 & S1) </li></ul><ul><li>- enters gluteal region thru GSF below piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- supplies: Gemellus inferior & Quadratus femoris </li></ul><ul><li>PUDENDAL NERVE (S2, S3, & S4) </li></ul><ul><li>- emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- no branch in gluteal region </li></ul><ul><li>- supplies: Perineum </li></ul>
  9. 10. BLOOD VESSELS <ul><li>SUPERIOR GLUTEAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><li>- largest branch of the Internal Iliac Artery </li></ul><ul><li>- emerges thru GSF above piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Branches: Superficial Branch = Gluteus maximus </li></ul><ul><li> Deep Branch = Gluteus medius & minimus </li></ul><ul><li>INFERIOR GLUTEAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><li>- from Internal Iliac Artery </li></ul><ul><li>- emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- supplies: Gluteal & Hamstring Muscles & Hip Joint </li></ul>
  10. 12. BLOOD VESSELS <ul><li>INTERNAL PUDENDAL ARTERY </li></ul><ul><li>- emerges thru GSF below piriformis muscle </li></ul><ul><li>- no branch in gluteal region </li></ul><ul><li>- supplies: Perineum </li></ul><ul><li>GLUTEAL VEINS </li></ul><ul><li>- usually double & accompany corresponding artery </li></ul><ul><li>- drains into Internal iliac Veins </li></ul><ul><li>- communicates with tributaries of Femoral Vein </li></ul><ul><li>(Alternate Pathway) </li></ul>
  11. 13. IMPORTANT ANATOMIC FEATURES <ul><li>SACROTUBEROUS LIGAMENT </li></ul><ul><li>- connects posterior iliac spine, </li></ul><ul><li>lower sacrum & coccyx to ischial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>- forms medial border of GSF & LSF </li></ul><ul><li>SACROSPINOUS LIGAMENT </li></ul><ul><li>- connects posterior surface of </li></ul><ul><li>sacrum & coccyx to ischial spine </li></ul><ul><li>- separates the GSF from the LSF </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>GREATER SCIATIC FORAMEN </li></ul><ul><li>LESSER SCIATIC FORAMEN </li></ul><ul><li>- formed by Sacrotuberous & Sacrospinous ligament </li></ul><ul><li>- filled with muscles, nerves & blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>GREATER SCIATIC FORAMEN transmits the ffg: </li></ul><ul><li>- Piriformis - Internal Pudendal Artery </li></ul><ul><li>- Sciatic Nerve - Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>- Superior Gluteal N, A & V - Nerve to Obturator internus </li></ul><ul><li>- Inferior Gluteal N, A & V - Nerve to Quadratus femoris </li></ul><ul><li>- Pudendal Nerve </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>LESSER SCIATIC FORAMEN transmits the ffg: </li></ul><ul><li>- Tendon of obturator internus </li></ul><ul><li>- Nerve to obturator internus </li></ul><ul><li>- Pudendal Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>- Internal Pudendal Artery & Vein </li></ul>
  14. 17. HIP JOINT <ul><li>- Synovial (Ball and Socket) joint b/w femoral head and acetabulum </li></ul><ul><li>- Links the lower extremity to the pelvic girdle </li></ul><ul><li>- most often disclocated posteriorly after a severe force to the knee </li></ul><ul><li>Movements: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, </li></ul><ul><li> medial & lateral rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Supply: SGA, IGA, Medial & Lateral Femoral Circumflex Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Innervation: Femoral & Obeturator Nerves </li></ul>
  15. 18. HIP JOINT <ul><li>Anatomic Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>LABRUM ACETABULARE </li></ul><ul><li>- fibrocatilagenous rim </li></ul><ul><li>- deepens the acetabulum </li></ul><ul><li>- forms the Transverse Acetabular Ligament (TAL) </li></ul><ul><li>FIBROUS CAPSULE </li></ul><ul><li>- restricts free movement </li></ul><ul><li>- encloses femoral head & neck </li></ul><ul><li>- proximally attached to acetabulum & TAL </li></ul><ul><li>- distally attached to greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line & base of the neck </li></ul>
  16. 20. LIGAMENTS of THE HIP JOINT <ul><li>ILIOFEMORAL LIGAMENT </li></ul><ul><li>- strongest & most important ligament of hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>- inverted Y reinforcing the fibrous capsule anteriorly </li></ul><ul><li>- attachments: Proximal = ASIS </li></ul><ul><li> Distal = Intertrochanteric Line </li></ul><ul><li>- function: Resists Hyperextension & Medial Rotation of the Hip </li></ul><ul><li>ISCHIOFEMORAL LIGAMENT </li></ul><ul><li>- supports the posterior part of Hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>- thinnest hip joint ligament </li></ul><ul><li>- attachments: Proximal = Ischium </li></ul><ul><li> Distal = Base of Femoral Neck </li></ul><ul><li>- function: Resists Extension and Medial Rotation of the Hip </li></ul>
  17. 21. LIGAMENTS of THE HIP JOINT <ul><li>PUBOFEMORAL LIGAMENT </li></ul><ul><li>- support anterior & inferior part of Hip joint </li></ul><ul><li>- attachments: Proximal = Pubis </li></ul><ul><li> Distal = Base of Femoral Neck </li></ul><ul><li>- function: Resists excessive Abduction of the Hip </li></ul><ul><li>LIGAMENT OF THE FEMORAL HEAD </li></ul><ul><li>(LIGAMENTUM TERES FEMORIS) </li></ul><ul><li>- attachments: fovea of femoral head to TAL & </li></ul><ul><li> margins of the acetabular notch </li></ul><ul><li>- function: Resists Abduction of the Hip in children </li></ul><ul><li> Transmits Artery to the Femoral Head </li></ul>
  18. 27. POSTERIOR THIGH COMPARTMENT
  19. 28. MUSCLES <ul><li>HAMSTRING GROUP </li></ul><ul><li>SEMITENDINOSUS* </li></ul><ul><li>SEMIMEMBRANOSUS* </li></ul><ul><li>BICEPS FEMORIS </li></ul><ul><li>Long Head* </li></ul><ul><li>Short Head** </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Extensors of the thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Flexors of the leg </li></ul><ul><li>Innervation: </li></ul><ul><li>* TIBIAL NERVE (L5, S1 & S2) </li></ul><ul><li>** COMMON FIBULAR (PERONEAL) NERVE (L5,S1 & S2) </li></ul>
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