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Lipids
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  • 1. www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • lipids are insoluble (hydrophobic) in water
    • due to the predominant presence of hydrocarbon groups
    • however, some possess polar or hydrophilic groups which tend to be soluble in water
  • 4.
    • molecules which contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups
    • (Greek – amphi – (both), pathos – passion)
    amphipathic
  • 5.
    • Examples:
    •  
    • Fatty acids
    • Phospholipids
    • Sphingolipids
    • Bile salts
    • Cholesterol (to some extent)
  • 6.
    • Fatty Acids – contain a hydrocarbon chain which is hydrophobic and a carboxyl (COO¯) group which is hydrophilic
    • Phospholipids – have a hydrophilic head
    • ( phosphate group attached to choline, ethanolamine, inositol etc.) and a long hydrophobic tail
  • 7.
    • when the amphipathic lipids are mixed in water
    • (aqueous phase)
    • the polar groups (heads) orient themselves towards aqueous phase while the non polar (tails) orient towards the opposite directions
    •  
    •  
    • leads to the formation of micelles
    •  
    •  
    • micelle formation, facilitated by bile salts is very important for lipid digestion & absorption
  • 8.
    • represented as a polar or hydrophilic head with a non-polar or hydrophobic tail
  • 9.
    • in case of biological membranes, a bilayer of lipids is formed orienting the polar heads to the outer aqueous phase on either side and the nonpolar tails into the interior
    • the formation of a lipid bilayer is the basis of membrane structure
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • are produced when amphipathic lipids in aqueous medium are subjected to sonifications
    • they have intermittent aqueous phases in the lipid bilayer
    • liposomes in combination with tissue specific antigens are used as carriers of drugs to target tissues
  • 13.
    • are produced when non polar lipids (e.g. triacylglycerols) are mixed with water
    • the particles are larger in size and stabilized by emulsifying agents (usually amphipathic lipids, - bile salts & phospholipids )
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