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The Nervous System
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Quick review of the nervous system.

Quick review of the nervous system.

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  • 1. www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  • 2. NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • 3. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • FUNCTIONS
    • 1. CONTROL
    • 2. COMMUNICATION
    • 3. COORDINATION
  • 4. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Types of Cells:
    • 1. NEURON - structural & functional unit
    • Parts: Cell Body ; Dendrites ; Axon
    • MYELIN SHEATH - lipid protein complex covering axons
    • - increases velocity of impulse conduction
    • SYNAPSE - neuronal connections
  • 5. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Types of Cells:
    • 2. NEUROGLIA - 5x more abundant than neurons
    • - non-neuronal & non-excitable
    • Functions: Support
    • Insulation
    • Nutrition
    • Types: CNS - Oligodendroglia, Astrocytes,
    • Ependymal Cells, Microglia
    • PNS - Satellite Cells, Neurolemma (Schwann Cells)
  • 6. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • I. ANATOMICAL DIVISIONS
    • 1. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Components:
    • a) Nucleus - collection of nerve cell bodies
    • b) Tract - bundle of nerve fibers (axons)
    • Layers:
    • a) Gray Matter - made up of nerve cell bodies
    • b) White Matter - made up of connecting fiber tract system
  • 7. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Parts: Brain & Spinal Cord
    • Coverings: (Meninges) 1. PIA MATER - innermost covering
    • 2. ARACHNOID MATER - most vascular
    • 3. DURA MATER - outermost & thickest covering
    • CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
  • 8. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • A. BRAIN
    • - 75% water, gelatin-like consistency
    • - supported & protected by bony cranium
    • - suspended in CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF)
    • Parts:
    • 1. CEREBRUM
    • 2. CEREBELLUM
    • 3. BRAINSTEM – Medulla Oblongata, Pons & Midbrain
  • 9. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • B. SPINAL CORD
    • - about 45 cms (18 ins) from foramen magnum to L1
    • - supported & protected by the vertebral column
    • - suspended in CSF
    • Parts:
    • 1. Conus Terminalis (Medullaris)
    • 2. Filum Terminale
    • 3. Cauda Equina
  • 10. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Parts: Cranial & Spinal Nerves
    • Components of a Peripheral Nerve Fiber:
    • 1. Axon
    • 2. Neurolemmal Sheath
    • 3. Endoneurial Connective Tissue Sheath
  • 11. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Types of Nerve Fibers
    • 1. Myelinated Nerve Fibers
    • - continuous series of Schwann Cells
    • 2. Unmyelinated Nerve Fibers
    • - enclosed as a group by neurolemmal sheath
    • - cutaneous nerve
  • 12. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Connective Tissue Coverings:
    • 1. ENDONEURIUM
    • - delicate sheath around neurolemmal cells & axon
    • 2. PERINEURIUM
    • - encloses a bundle of nerve fibers (Fascicle)
    • 3. EPINEURIUM
    • - thick loose connective tissue that encloses nerve bundles
    • - outermost covering of a peripheral nerve
  • 13. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • 1. CRANIAL NERVES (12 Pairs)
    • I - Olfactory VII - Facial
    • II - Optic VIII - VestibuloCochlear
    • III - Oculomotor IX - Glossopharyngeal
    • IV - Trochlear X - Vagus
    • V - Trigeminal XI - Spinal Accessory
    • VI - Abducens XII - Hypoglossal
  • 14. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • 2. SPINAL NERVES (31 Pairs)
    • Cervical = 8 pairs
    • Thoracic = 12 pairs
    • Lumbar = 5 pairs
    • Sacral = 5 pairs
    • Coccygeal = 1 pair
  • 15. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • 3. GANGLIA
    • 4. PLEXUSES
    • A. Upper Limb – Cervical & Brachial Plexus
    • B. Lower Limb - Lumbar & Sacral Plexus
  • 16. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • General Structure of a Spinal Nerve
    • Anterior Root = Efferent Fibers (Motor)
    • Posterior Root = Afferent Fibers (Sensory)
    • Anterior Ramus = Muscles & Skin of Anterolateral wall & extremities
    • Posterior Ramus = Muscles & Skin of Posterior wall
    • Meningeal Branch = supply vertebra & spinal cord
  • 17.  
  • 18. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Functional Divisions:
    • 1. SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (VOLUNTARY)
    • a. General Somatic Afferent Division (Sensory)
    • b. General Somatic Efferent Division (Motor)
    • ** found both in CNS & PNS
    • ** innervates all parts of the body (motor & sensory)
    • EXCEPT visceral organs
    • smooth muscles
    • glands
  • 19. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • 2. VISCERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (Involuntary)
    • 2.a. General Visceral Afferent Division (Sensory)
    • - provides info on body’s internal environment
    • - transmits visceral pain (hunger, spasms, ischemia,
    • distension & chemical irritations)
  • 20. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • 2.b. General Visceral Efferent Division (Motor)
    • (AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM)
    • - innervates smooth muscles, cardiac muscle & glands
    • - regulates visceral functions
    • - uses both Norepinephrine & Acetylcholine as
    • neurotransmitters
  • 21. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
    • 1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Excitatory)
    • 2. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Inhibitory)
  • 22. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • 1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Excitatory)
    • Function: prepares the body for emergencies
    • - increases the heart rate
    • - vasoconstriction
    • - elevates the blood pressure
    • 1.a. Efferent Fibers
    • a) Terminate in Ganglia
    • - smooth muscles of bld vessel walls
    • - sweat glands
    • - arrector pili muscles of skin
    • b) Splanchnic Nerves
    • - smooth muscles & glands of the viscera
  • 23. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • ANS – Sympathetic Division
    • 1.a. Efferent Fibers
    • a) Terminate in Ganglia
    • - smooth muscles of bld vessel walls
    • - sweat glands
    • - arrector pili muscles of skin
    • b) Splanchnic Nerves
    • - smooth muscles & glands of the viscera
  • 24. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia Distribution
    • 3 cervical 5 lumbar
    • 12 thoracic 5 pelvis
    • 1.b. Afferent Fibers
    • - form the afferent component of a local reflex arc
  • 25.  
  • 26. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • 2. Parasympathetic Division (Inhibitory)
    • Function: anabolic / hemostatic (energy conserving)
    • - slows the heart rate
    • - increases peristalsis of the intestines
    • - increases glandular secretions
    • - relaxes body sphincters
  • 27. NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • ANS - Parasympathetic Division
    • 2.a. Efferent Fibers – Preganglionic both Cranial & Sacral Segments
    • Cranial Segment – Ciliary, Pterygopalatine, Submandibular
    • Otic Ganglia
    • Sacral Segment – Pelvic Plexus
    • 2.b. Afferent Fibers - activated by sensations of stretch & ischemia
    • - travel alongside the somatic afferent fibers
  • 28.  
  • 29. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Components of a Typical Spinal Nerve
    • A. SOMATIC FIBERS
    • GENERAL SOMATIC AFFERENT (Sensory)
    • - extroceptive sensation (pain, temp, touch & pressure)
    • - propioceptive sensation (joint position, tension on tendon
    • & muscles)
    • GENERAL SOMATIC EFFERENT (Motor)
    • - skeletal muscles (voluntary)
  • 30. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • B. VISCERAL FIBERS
    • GENERAL VISCERAL AFFERENT (Sensory)
    • - reflex/pain sensation from mucus membranes, glands
    • & blood vessels
    • GENERAL VISCERAL EFFERENT (Motor)
    • - smooth muscles & glandular tissues
  • 31. It’s FREE to join. http://www.examville.com