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NERVOUS  SYSTEM
NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>1.  CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>2.  COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>3.  ...
NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>Types  of  Cells: </li></ul><ul><li>1. NEURON  -  structural & functional unit  </li></ul><ul><li>...
NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>Types of Cells: </li></ul><ul><li>2. NEUROGLIA -  5x more abundant than neurons </li></ul><ul><li>...
NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>I.  ANATOMICAL  DIVISIONS </li></ul><ul><li>1.  CENTRAL  NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Componen...
CENTRAL  NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>Parts:  Brain  &  Spinal  Cord </li></ul><ul><li>Coverings:  (Meninges) 1.  PIA  MATER - ...
CENTRAL NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>A. BRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>- 75% water, gelatin-like consistency </li></ul><ul><li>- suppo...
CENTRAL NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>B. SPINAL  CORD </li></ul><ul><li>-  about 45 cms (18 ins) from foramen magnum to L1 </li>...
NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>PERIPHERAL  NERVOUS  SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Parts:  Cranial  & Spinal  Nerves </li></ul><ul><li>...
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Types of  Nerve Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Myelinated Nerve Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>-...
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>Connective Tissue Coverings: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  ENDONEURIUM </li></ul><ul><li>- deli...
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>1.  CRANIAL  NERVES  (12  Pairs) </li></ul><ul><li>I  -  Olfactory VII  -  Facial </li>...
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>2.  SPINAL  NERVES  (31 Pairs) </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical  =  8 pairs </li></ul><ul><li...
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>3.  GANGLIA </li></ul><ul><li>4.  PLEXUSES </li></ul><ul><li>A. Upper  Limb – Cervical ...
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>General Structure of a Spinal Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior  Root  =  Efferent  Fibe...
 
NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Functional Divisions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. SOMATIC  NERVOUS  SYSTEM  (VOLUNTARY) </li></ul><ul><li>...
NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>2. VISCERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (Involuntary) </li></ul><ul><li>2.a. General Visceral Afferent Division...
NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>2.b. General Visceral Efferent Division (Motor) </li></ul><ul><li>  (AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM)   </...
NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Excitatory) <...
NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Excitatory) </li></ul><ul><li>F...
NERVOUS  SYSTEM <ul><li>ANS – Sympathetic Division </li></ul><ul><li>1.a. Efferent Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>  a) Terminate...
NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>AUTONOMIC  NERVOUS  SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia Distribution </li></ul><ul><...
 
NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>AUTONOMIC  NERVOUS  SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>2. Parasympathetic Division (Inhibitory) </li></ul><ul...
NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>ANS - Parasympathetic Division </li></ul><ul><li>2.a. Efferent Fibers – Preganglionic both Cranial ...
 
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Components of a Typical Spinal Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>A. SOMATIC FIBERS </li></ul><ul><...
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>B. VISCERAL FIBERS </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL VISCERAL AFFERENT  (Sensory) </li></ul><ul>...
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The Nervous System

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Quick review of the nervous system.

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Transcript of "The Nervous System"

  1. 1. www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  2. 2. NERVOUS SYSTEM
  3. 3. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>1. CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>2. COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>3. COORDINATION </li></ul>
  4. 4. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Types of Cells: </li></ul><ul><li>1. NEURON - structural & functional unit </li></ul><ul><li>Parts: Cell Body ; Dendrites ; Axon </li></ul><ul><li>MYELIN SHEATH - lipid protein complex covering axons </li></ul><ul><li> - increases velocity of impulse conduction </li></ul><ul><li>SYNAPSE - neuronal connections </li></ul>
  5. 5. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Types of Cells: </li></ul><ul><li>2. NEUROGLIA - 5x more abundant than neurons </li></ul><ul><li>- non-neuronal & non-excitable </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: Support </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Types: CNS - Oligodendroglia, Astrocytes, </li></ul><ul><li>Ependymal Cells, Microglia </li></ul><ul><li> PNS - Satellite Cells, Neurolemma (Schwann Cells) </li></ul>
  6. 6. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>I. ANATOMICAL DIVISIONS </li></ul><ul><li>1. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Components: </li></ul><ul><li> a) Nucleus - collection of nerve cell bodies </li></ul><ul><li> b) Tract - bundle of nerve fibers (axons) </li></ul><ul><li>Layers: </li></ul><ul><li> a) Gray Matter - made up of nerve cell bodies </li></ul><ul><li> b) White Matter - made up of connecting fiber tract system </li></ul>
  7. 7. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Parts: Brain & Spinal Cord </li></ul><ul><li>Coverings: (Meninges) 1. PIA MATER - innermost covering </li></ul><ul><li>2. ARACHNOID MATER - most vascular </li></ul><ul><li>3. DURA MATER - outermost & thickest covering </li></ul><ul><li>CEREBROSPINAL FLUID </li></ul>
  8. 8. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>A. BRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>- 75% water, gelatin-like consistency </li></ul><ul><li>- supported & protected by bony cranium </li></ul><ul><li>- suspended in CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF) </li></ul><ul><li>Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. CEREBRUM </li></ul><ul><li>2. CEREBELLUM </li></ul><ul><li>3. BRAINSTEM – Medulla Oblongata, Pons & Midbrain </li></ul>
  9. 9. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>B. SPINAL CORD </li></ul><ul><li>- about 45 cms (18 ins) from foramen magnum to L1 </li></ul><ul><li>- supported & protected by the vertebral column </li></ul><ul><li>- suspended in CSF </li></ul><ul><li>Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Conus Terminalis (Medullaris) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Filum Terminale </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cauda Equina </li></ul>
  10. 10. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Parts: Cranial & Spinal Nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Components of a Peripheral Nerve Fiber: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Axon </li></ul><ul><li>2. Neurolemmal Sheath </li></ul><ul><li>3. Endoneurial Connective Tissue Sheath </li></ul>
  11. 11. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Types of Nerve Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>1. Myelinated Nerve Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>- continuous series of Schwann Cells </li></ul><ul><li>2. Unmyelinated Nerve Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>- enclosed as a group by neurolemmal sheath </li></ul><ul><li>- cutaneous nerve </li></ul>
  12. 12. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Connective Tissue Coverings: </li></ul><ul><li>1. ENDONEURIUM </li></ul><ul><li>- delicate sheath around neurolemmal cells & axon </li></ul><ul><li>2. PERINEURIUM </li></ul><ul><li>- encloses a bundle of nerve fibers (Fascicle) </li></ul><ul><li>3. EPINEURIUM </li></ul><ul><li>- thick loose connective tissue that encloses nerve bundles </li></ul><ul><li>- outermost covering of a peripheral nerve </li></ul>
  13. 13. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>1. CRANIAL NERVES (12 Pairs) </li></ul><ul><li>I - Olfactory VII - Facial </li></ul><ul><li>II - Optic VIII - VestibuloCochlear </li></ul><ul><li>III - Oculomotor IX - Glossopharyngeal </li></ul><ul><li>IV - Trochlear X - Vagus </li></ul><ul><li>V - Trigeminal XI - Spinal Accessory </li></ul><ul><li>VI - Abducens XII - Hypoglossal </li></ul>
  14. 14. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>2. SPINAL NERVES (31 Pairs) </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical = 8 pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic = 12 pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbar = 5 pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral = 5 pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Coccygeal = 1 pair </li></ul>
  15. 15. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>3. GANGLIA </li></ul><ul><li>4. PLEXUSES </li></ul><ul><li>A. Upper Limb – Cervical & Brachial Plexus </li></ul><ul><li>B. Lower Limb - Lumbar & Sacral Plexus </li></ul>
  16. 16. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>General Structure of a Spinal Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior Root = Efferent Fibers (Motor) </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior Root = Afferent Fibers (Sensory) </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior Ramus = Muscles & Skin of Anterolateral wall & extremities </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior Ramus = Muscles & Skin of Posterior wall </li></ul><ul><li>Meningeal Branch = supply vertebra & spinal cord </li></ul>
  17. 18. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Functional Divisions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (VOLUNTARY) </li></ul><ul><li>a. General Somatic Afferent Division (Sensory) </li></ul><ul><li>b. General Somatic Efferent Division (Motor) </li></ul><ul><li>** found both in CNS & PNS </li></ul><ul><li>** innervates all parts of the body (motor & sensory) </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEPT visceral organs </li></ul><ul><li> smooth muscles </li></ul><ul><li> glands </li></ul>
  18. 19. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>2. VISCERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (Involuntary) </li></ul><ul><li>2.a. General Visceral Afferent Division (Sensory) </li></ul><ul><li> - provides info on body’s internal environment </li></ul><ul><li> - transmits visceral pain (hunger, spasms, ischemia, </li></ul><ul><li> distension & chemical irritations) </li></ul>
  19. 20. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>2.b. General Visceral Efferent Division (Motor) </li></ul><ul><li> (AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM) </li></ul><ul><li>- innervates smooth muscles, cardiac muscle & glands </li></ul><ul><li>- regulates visceral functions </li></ul><ul><li>- uses both Norepinephrine & Acetylcholine as </li></ul><ul><li>neurotransmitters </li></ul>
  20. 21. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Excitatory) </li></ul><ul><li>2. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Inhibitory) </li></ul>
  21. 22. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Excitatory) </li></ul><ul><li>Function: prepares the body for emergencies </li></ul><ul><li> - increases the heart rate </li></ul><ul><li> - vasoconstriction </li></ul><ul><li> - elevates the blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>1.a. Efferent Fibers </li></ul><ul><li> a) Terminate in Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>- smooth muscles of bld vessel walls </li></ul><ul><li>- sweat glands </li></ul><ul><li>- arrector pili muscles of skin </li></ul><ul><li> b) Splanchnic Nerves </li></ul><ul><li>- smooth muscles & glands of the viscera </li></ul>
  22. 23. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>ANS – Sympathetic Division </li></ul><ul><li>1.a. Efferent Fibers </li></ul><ul><li> a) Terminate in Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>- smooth muscles of bld vessel walls </li></ul><ul><li>- sweat glands </li></ul><ul><li>- arrector pili muscles of skin </li></ul><ul><li> b) Splanchnic Nerves </li></ul><ul><li>- smooth muscles & glands of the viscera </li></ul>
  23. 24. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>3 cervical 5 lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>12 thoracic 5 pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>1.b. Afferent Fibers </li></ul><ul><li> - form the afferent component of a local reflex arc </li></ul>
  24. 26. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>2. Parasympathetic Division (Inhibitory) </li></ul><ul><li>Function: anabolic / hemostatic (energy conserving) </li></ul><ul><li> - slows the heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>- increases peristalsis of the intestines </li></ul><ul><li>- increases glandular secretions </li></ul><ul><li>- relaxes body sphincters </li></ul>
  25. 27. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>ANS - Parasympathetic Division </li></ul><ul><li>2.a. Efferent Fibers – Preganglionic both Cranial & Sacral Segments </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial Segment – Ciliary, Pterygopalatine, Submandibular </li></ul><ul><li> Otic Ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral Segment – Pelvic Plexus </li></ul><ul><li>2.b. Afferent Fibers - activated by sensations of stretch & ischemia </li></ul><ul><li> - travel alongside the somatic afferent fibers </li></ul>
  26. 29. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Components of a Typical Spinal Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>A. SOMATIC FIBERS </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL SOMATIC AFFERENT (Sensory) </li></ul><ul><li> - extroceptive sensation (pain, temp, touch & pressure) </li></ul><ul><li> - propioceptive sensation (joint position, tension on tendon </li></ul><ul><li>& muscles) </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL SOMATIC EFFERENT (Motor) </li></ul><ul><li> - skeletal muscles (voluntary) </li></ul>
  27. 30. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>B. VISCERAL FIBERS </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL VISCERAL AFFERENT (Sensory) </li></ul><ul><li> - reflex/pain sensation from mucus membranes, glands </li></ul><ul><li>& blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL VISCERAL EFFERENT (Motor) </li></ul><ul><li> - smooth muscles & glandular tissues </li></ul>
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