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The Nervous System
 

The Nervous System

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Quick review of the nervous system.

Quick review of the nervous system.

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    The Nervous System The Nervous System Presentation Transcript

    • www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • FUNCTIONS
      • 1. CONTROL
      • 2. COMMUNICATION
      • 3. COORDINATION
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Types of Cells:
      • 1. NEURON - structural & functional unit
      • Parts: Cell Body ; Dendrites ; Axon
      • MYELIN SHEATH - lipid protein complex covering axons
      • - increases velocity of impulse conduction
      • SYNAPSE - neuronal connections
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Types of Cells:
      • 2. NEUROGLIA - 5x more abundant than neurons
      • - non-neuronal & non-excitable
      • Functions: Support
      • Insulation
      • Nutrition
      • Types: CNS - Oligodendroglia, Astrocytes,
      • Ependymal Cells, Microglia
      • PNS - Satellite Cells, Neurolemma (Schwann Cells)
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • I. ANATOMICAL DIVISIONS
      • 1. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Components:
      • a) Nucleus - collection of nerve cell bodies
      • b) Tract - bundle of nerve fibers (axons)
      • Layers:
      • a) Gray Matter - made up of nerve cell bodies
      • b) White Matter - made up of connecting fiber tract system
    • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Parts: Brain & Spinal Cord
      • Coverings: (Meninges) 1. PIA MATER - innermost covering
      • 2. ARACHNOID MATER - most vascular
      • 3. DURA MATER - outermost & thickest covering
      • CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
    • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • A. BRAIN
      • - 75% water, gelatin-like consistency
      • - supported & protected by bony cranium
      • - suspended in CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF)
      • Parts:
      • 1. CEREBRUM
      • 2. CEREBELLUM
      • 3. BRAINSTEM – Medulla Oblongata, Pons & Midbrain
    • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • B. SPINAL CORD
      • - about 45 cms (18 ins) from foramen magnum to L1
      • - supported & protected by the vertebral column
      • - suspended in CSF
      • Parts:
      • 1. Conus Terminalis (Medullaris)
      • 2. Filum Terminale
      • 3. Cauda Equina
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Parts: Cranial & Spinal Nerves
      • Components of a Peripheral Nerve Fiber:
      • 1. Axon
      • 2. Neurolemmal Sheath
      • 3. Endoneurial Connective Tissue Sheath
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Types of Nerve Fibers
      • 1. Myelinated Nerve Fibers
      • - continuous series of Schwann Cells
      • 2. Unmyelinated Nerve Fibers
      • - enclosed as a group by neurolemmal sheath
      • - cutaneous nerve
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Connective Tissue Coverings:
      • 1. ENDONEURIUM
      • - delicate sheath around neurolemmal cells & axon
      • 2. PERINEURIUM
      • - encloses a bundle of nerve fibers (Fascicle)
      • 3. EPINEURIUM
      • - thick loose connective tissue that encloses nerve bundles
      • - outermost covering of a peripheral nerve
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • 1. CRANIAL NERVES (12 Pairs)
      • I - Olfactory VII - Facial
      • II - Optic VIII - VestibuloCochlear
      • III - Oculomotor IX - Glossopharyngeal
      • IV - Trochlear X - Vagus
      • V - Trigeminal XI - Spinal Accessory
      • VI - Abducens XII - Hypoglossal
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • 2. SPINAL NERVES (31 Pairs)
      • Cervical = 8 pairs
      • Thoracic = 12 pairs
      • Lumbar = 5 pairs
      • Sacral = 5 pairs
      • Coccygeal = 1 pair
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • 3. GANGLIA
      • 4. PLEXUSES
      • A. Upper Limb – Cervical & Brachial Plexus
      • B. Lower Limb - Lumbar & Sacral Plexus
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • General Structure of a Spinal Nerve
      • Anterior Root = Efferent Fibers (Motor)
      • Posterior Root = Afferent Fibers (Sensory)
      • Anterior Ramus = Muscles & Skin of Anterolateral wall & extremities
      • Posterior Ramus = Muscles & Skin of Posterior wall
      • Meningeal Branch = supply vertebra & spinal cord
    •  
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Functional Divisions:
      • 1. SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (VOLUNTARY)
      • a. General Somatic Afferent Division (Sensory)
      • b. General Somatic Efferent Division (Motor)
      • ** found both in CNS & PNS
      • ** innervates all parts of the body (motor & sensory)
      • EXCEPT visceral organs
      • smooth muscles
      • glands
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • 2. VISCERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (Involuntary)
      • 2.a. General Visceral Afferent Division (Sensory)
      • - provides info on body’s internal environment
      • - transmits visceral pain (hunger, spasms, ischemia,
      • distension & chemical irritations)
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • 2.b. General Visceral Efferent Division (Motor)
      • (AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM)
      • - innervates smooth muscles, cardiac muscle & glands
      • - regulates visceral functions
      • - uses both Norepinephrine & Acetylcholine as
      • neurotransmitters
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      • 1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Excitatory)
      • 2. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Inhibitory)
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • 1. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION (Excitatory)
      • Function: prepares the body for emergencies
      • - increases the heart rate
      • - vasoconstriction
      • - elevates the blood pressure
      • 1.a. Efferent Fibers
      • a) Terminate in Ganglia
      • - smooth muscles of bld vessel walls
      • - sweat glands
      • - arrector pili muscles of skin
      • b) Splanchnic Nerves
      • - smooth muscles & glands of the viscera
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • ANS – Sympathetic Division
      • 1.a. Efferent Fibers
      • a) Terminate in Ganglia
      • - smooth muscles of bld vessel walls
      • - sweat glands
      • - arrector pili muscles of skin
      • b) Splanchnic Nerves
      • - smooth muscles & glands of the viscera
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia Distribution
      • 3 cervical 5 lumbar
      • 12 thoracic 5 pelvis
      • 1.b. Afferent Fibers
      • - form the afferent component of a local reflex arc
    •  
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • 2. Parasympathetic Division (Inhibitory)
      • Function: anabolic / hemostatic (energy conserving)
      • - slows the heart rate
      • - increases peristalsis of the intestines
      • - increases glandular secretions
      • - relaxes body sphincters
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • ANS - Parasympathetic Division
      • 2.a. Efferent Fibers – Preganglionic both Cranial & Sacral Segments
      • Cranial Segment – Ciliary, Pterygopalatine, Submandibular
      • Otic Ganglia
      • Sacral Segment – Pelvic Plexus
      • 2.b. Afferent Fibers - activated by sensations of stretch & ischemia
      • - travel alongside the somatic afferent fibers
    •  
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • Components of a Typical Spinal Nerve
      • A. SOMATIC FIBERS
      • GENERAL SOMATIC AFFERENT (Sensory)
      • - extroceptive sensation (pain, temp, touch & pressure)
      • - propioceptive sensation (joint position, tension on tendon
      • & muscles)
      • GENERAL SOMATIC EFFERENT (Motor)
      • - skeletal muscles (voluntary)
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • B. VISCERAL FIBERS
      • GENERAL VISCERAL AFFERENT (Sensory)
      • - reflex/pain sensation from mucus membranes, glands
      • & blood vessels
      • GENERAL VISCERAL EFFERENT (Motor)
      • - smooth muscles & glandular tissues
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