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MUSCULAR  SYSTEM
MUSCULAR  SYSTEM <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Movement of body parts </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Provide form and sh...
MUSCULAR  SYSTEM <ul><li>General  Classification </li></ul><ul><li>  Skeletal Muscle  -  striated, voluntary </li></ul><ul...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>General  Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>I.  Attachments   </li></ul><ul><li>  Origin  Insert...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Criteria for Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>1. Attachment   </li></ul><ul><li>  ex) Sternocleido...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Criteria for Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>3. Length </li></ul><ul><li>  longus  or  brevis </l...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Criteria for Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>5.  Size </li></ul><ul><li>maximus or minimus </li><...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Criteria for Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>6.  Orientation of Fibers   </li></ul><ul><li>  rect...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Muscle Groupings </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Movers/Agonists </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonists </li></ul...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Associated Connective Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>1. Endomysium </li></ul><ul><li>2. Perimysium </...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Innervation </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle  Fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Motor  Unit = Motor Neuron </li></...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>A. Muscles of the Axial Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>  1. Muscles o...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>A. Muscles of the Axial Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>  2. Muscles o...
SKELETAL  MUSCLES <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>B. Muscles of the Appendicular Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>1. Musc...
CARDIAC  MUSCLES (MYOCARDIUM)
CARDIAC  MUSCLES <ul><ul><li>General  Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>behaves as a single unit </li></ul><ul><li>al...
SMOOTH  (VISCERAL)  MUSCLES
SMOOTH  MUSCLES <ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>  A.  Arrangement of Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>  1. Circular </li...
SMOOTH  MUSCLES <ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>  B. Function </li></ul><ul><li>  1.  Single-unit = myogenic ele...
SMOOTH  MUSCLES <ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li>  2. Multi-unit = individual stimulation of </li></ul><ul><li>  ...
MUSCULAR  SYSTEM <ul><li>Clinical  Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>A.  Symptoms of Muscular Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>1.  W...
MUSCULAR  SYSTEM <ul><li>Clinical  Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>B.  Functional Muscular Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>  1. ...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transport  =  Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>  Nutrition </li></...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Heart </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Blood  Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>2 Sides: Right Side = Venous Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Left  Side  =  Ar...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Blood  Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>A.  Layers </li></ul><ul><li>1. Tunica Externa/CT Layer </li>...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Arterial  System </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>- carry blood from heart...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Arterial  System </li></ul><ul><li>Major  Arteries: </li></ul><ul><li>  1. Aorta = Arch, Thora...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Arterial  System </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical  End  Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>- branches do n...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>- convey blood to heart from...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous Systems </li></ul><ul><li>A. Systemic Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>B. Portal Venous ...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that assist blood flow: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Gravity ...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous  System </li></ul><ul><li>Major  Veins: </li></ul><ul><li>  A) Tributaries to Superior ...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous  System </li></ul><ul><li>Major  Veins: </li></ul><ul><li>  B) Tributaries to Inferior ...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous  System </li></ul><ul><li>Major  Veins: </li></ul><ul><li>  C) Tributaries to the Porta...
CIRCULATORY  SYSTEM <ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Types:  </li></ul><ul><li>a) Continuous  (muscles, lungs, fatty ...
LYMPHATIC  SYSTEM
LYMPHATIC  SYSTEM <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transport </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fat Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>...
LYMPHATIC  SYSTEM <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>1. Lymph  Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lymph  Ducts </li></ul><...
LYMPHATIC  SYSTEM <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lymphatic Organs </li></ul><ul><li>  a) Lymph  Nodes  </li></ul>...
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The Muscular System

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Quick review of the muscular system.

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The Muscular System

  1. 1. www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  2. 2. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
  3. 3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Movement of body parts </li></ul><ul><li>2. Provide form and shape </li></ul><ul><li>3. Heat production </li></ul>
  4. 4. MUSCULAR SYSTEM <ul><li>General Classification </li></ul><ul><li> Skeletal Muscle - striated, voluntary </li></ul><ul><li> Cardiac Muscle - striated, involuntary </li></ul><ul><li> Smooth Muscle - non-striated, involuntary </li></ul>
  5. 5. SKELETAL MUSCLES
  6. 6. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>General Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>I. Attachments </li></ul><ul><li> Origin Insertion </li></ul><ul><li>II. Structure </li></ul><ul><li> Belly </li></ul><ul><li> Tendon or Aponeurosis </li></ul>
  7. 7. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Criteria for Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>1. Attachment </li></ul><ul><li> ex) Sternocleidomastoid </li></ul><ul><li> Temporalis </li></ul><ul><li>2. Function </li></ul><ul><li> extensor or flexor </li></ul><ul><li> abductor or adductor </li></ul>
  8. 8. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Criteria for Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>3. Length </li></ul><ul><li> longus or brevis </li></ul><ul><li>4. Relative Position </li></ul><ul><li> lateral or medial </li></ul><ul><li> superior or inferior </li></ul><ul><li> internal or external </li></ul>
  9. 9. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Criteria for Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>5. Size </li></ul><ul><li>maximus or minimus </li></ul><ul><li>major or minor </li></ul>
  10. 10. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Criteria for Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>6. Orientation of Fibers </li></ul><ul><li> rectus, oblique, or transverse </li></ul><ul><li> parallel or fusiform </li></ul><ul><li> convergent </li></ul><ul><li> pennate (uni, bi, or multipennate) </li></ul><ul><li> circular </li></ul>
  11. 11. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Muscle Groupings </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Movers/Agonists </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonists </li></ul><ul><li>Synergists </li></ul><ul><li>Fixators </li></ul><ul><li>Shunt Muscle – resists dislocation </li></ul><ul><li>Spurt Muscle – rapid & effective </li></ul>
  12. 12. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Associated Connective Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>1. Endomysium </li></ul><ul><li>2. Perimysium </li></ul><ul><li>3. Epimysium </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fascia – Superficial </li></ul><ul><li> Deep </li></ul>
  13. 13. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Innervation </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle Fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Unit = Motor Neuron </li></ul><ul><li> Muscle Fiber </li></ul><ul><li> Coarse Movements </li></ul><ul><li> Fine Movements </li></ul><ul><li> Muscle Tone </li></ul>
  14. 14. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>A. Muscles of the Axial Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Muscles of Head & Neck </li></ul><ul><li> Facial Expression </li></ul><ul><li> Mastication </li></ul><ul><li> Extraocular Muscles </li></ul><ul><li> Lingual Muscles </li></ul><ul><li> Muscles of the Neck </li></ul>
  15. 15. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>A. Muscles of the Axial Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Muscles of the Torso </li></ul><ul><li> Respiratory Muscles </li></ul><ul><li> Abdominal Wall Muscles </li></ul><ul><li> Muscles of the Back </li></ul><ul><li> Muscles of the Pelvic Floor </li></ul>
  16. 16. SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>B. Muscles of the Appendicular Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>1. Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><li>2. Muscles of the Upper Extremity </li></ul><ul><li>3. Muscles of the Buttocks </li></ul><ul><li>3. Muscles of the Lower Extremity </li></ul>
  17. 17. CARDIAC MUSCLES (MYOCARDIUM)
  18. 18. CARDIAC MUSCLES <ul><ul><li>General Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>behaves as a single unit </li></ul><ul><li>all-or-none contraction </li></ul><ul><li>pacemaker stimulated </li></ul><ul><li>under autonomic innervation </li></ul><ul><li>possess intercalated discs </li></ul>
  19. 19. SMOOTH (VISCERAL) MUSCLES
  20. 20. SMOOTH MUSCLES <ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li> A. Arrangement of Fibers </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Circular </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Longitudinal </li></ul><ul><li> 3. Oblique </li></ul>
  21. 21. SMOOTH MUSCLES <ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li> B. Function </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Single-unit = myogenic electrical </li></ul><ul><li>activity </li></ul><ul><li> ex) Uterine Contractions </li></ul><ul><li> Peristalsis of GIT & GUT </li></ul>
  22. 22. SMOOTH MUSCLES <ul><li>Classification: </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Multi-unit = individual stimulation of </li></ul><ul><li> muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li> ex) Arrector Pili Muscles </li></ul>
  23. 23. MUSCULAR SYSTEM <ul><li>Clinical Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>A. Symptoms of Muscular Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>1. Weakness or Paresis </li></ul><ul><li>2. Muscle Pain </li></ul><ul><li>3. Loss of Muscle Mass </li></ul>
  24. 24. MUSCULAR SYSTEM <ul><li>Clinical Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>B. Functional Muscular Conditions </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Strain </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Atrophy </li></ul><ul><li> 3. Hypertrophy </li></ul><ul><li> 4. Cramps </li></ul>
  25. 25. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  26. 26. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transport = Respiration </li></ul><ul><li> Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li> Excretion </li></ul><ul><li>2. Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Protection </li></ul>
  27. 27. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>1. Heart </li></ul><ul><li>2. Blood Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>a) Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>b) Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>c) Veins </li></ul><ul><li>3. Blood </li></ul>
  28. 29. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>2 Sides: Right Side = Venous Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Left Side = Arterial Blood </li></ul><ul><li>4 Chambers: 2 Atria </li></ul><ul><li> 2 Ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>4 Valves: Tricuspid & Pulmonic Valves </li></ul><ul><li> Mitral & Aortic Valves </li></ul>
  29. 30. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Blood Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>A. Layers </li></ul><ul><li>1. Tunica Externa/CT Layer </li></ul><ul><li>2. Tunica Media/Muscular Layer </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tunica Intima/Endothelial Layer </li></ul>
  30. 31. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Arterial System </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>- carry blood from heart to tissues </li></ul><ul><li>- divide into “branches” </li></ul><ul><li>- arterioles </li></ul><ul><li>- anastomosis </li></ul>
  31. 32. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Arterial System </li></ul><ul><li>Major Arteries: </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Aorta = Arch, Thoracic & Abdominal </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Arteries of Head & Neck </li></ul><ul><li> 3. Arteries of the Upper Extremities </li></ul><ul><li> 4. Arteries of the Pelvis & Lower Extremities </li></ul>
  32. 33. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Arterial System </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical End Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>- branches do not anastomose </li></ul><ul><li>Functional End Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>- branches anastomose but </li></ul><ul><li> insufficient </li></ul>
  33. 34. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>- convey blood to heart from tissues </li></ul><ul><li>- possess valves </li></ul><ul><li>- venules </li></ul><ul><li>- formed by “tributaries” </li></ul><ul><li>- “venous plexuses </li></ul><ul><li>- vena comitantes </li></ul>
  34. 35. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous Systems </li></ul><ul><li>A. Systemic Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>B. Portal Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>- interposed between two capillary beds </li></ul><ul><li>- sinusoids </li></ul>
  35. 36. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that assist blood flow: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Muscular Contractions </li></ul><ul><li>3. Presence of Valves </li></ul>
  36. 37. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>Major Veins: </li></ul><ul><li> A) Tributaries to Superior Vena Cava </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Veins draining the Head & Neck </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Veins of Upper Extremities </li></ul><ul><li> 3. Veins of the Thorax </li></ul>
  37. 38. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>Major Veins: </li></ul><ul><li> B) Tributaries to Inferior Vena Cava </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Veins of the Abdominal Wall </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Veins of the Kidneys </li></ul><ul><li> 3. Veins of the Lower Extremities </li></ul>
  38. 39. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Venous System </li></ul><ul><li>Major Veins: </li></ul><ul><li> C) Tributaries to the Portal Vein </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Veins of the Gastrointestinal Tract </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Veins of the Spleen & Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  39. 40. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Continuous (muscles, lungs, fatty tissues) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Fenestrated (kidneys, small intestines) </li></ul><ul><li>c) Sinusoids (liver, spleen) </li></ul><ul><li>Arteriovenous Anastomoses </li></ul>
  40. 41. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
  41. 42. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transport </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fat Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>3. Defense </li></ul>
  42. 43. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>1. Lymph Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lymph Ducts </li></ul><ul><li> a) Thoracic Duct </li></ul><ul><li> b) Right Lymphatic Duct </li></ul>
  43. 44. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lymphatic Organs </li></ul><ul><li> a) Lymph Nodes </li></ul><ul><li> filters lymph </li></ul><ul><li> produce lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li> b) Spleen </li></ul><ul><li> c) Thymus </li></ul>
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