Artificial kidney


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about functioning of kidney and dialysis methods

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Artificial kidney

  1. 1. ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY HAMID NASEEM MD SOHRAB ANSARI Department of Electrical engineering
  2. 2. Outlines <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Function of the Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Working of Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Bowman’s Capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Reabsorption by Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Dialysis </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Dialysis </li></ul><ul><li>How does dialysis work? </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Human Possess Two Kidneys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situated at the back of the abdominal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each kidney is connected to a tube called the ureter which empties into the urinary bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each kidney is supply by a renal artery which supplies urea and oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each is also supply with a renal vein that leaves the kidney with the correct levels of urea, salts & water. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Function of the Kidney <ul><li>Remove undesirable substances from the blood plasma: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess of ingested water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess of mineral salts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulate the Acidity of blood </li></ul><ul><li>25% of the blood flows through the kidneys (1,2 l/min) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Terminology <ul><li>Blood is filtered in the Nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>The cortex of kidney contains about 1million Nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>Nephron consists of Renal Corpuscle & Renal Tubule </li></ul><ul><li>The main filter of the Nephron is Glomerulus which is located within the Bowman's Capsule </li></ul>
  6. 6. How Kidney Works <ul><li>Supplied with blood from Renal Artery </li></ul><ul><li>Inside it splits into many fine Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Each capillary supplies blood to hundreds of thousands of tiny filtration units called Nephrons </li></ul>
  7. 7. B
  9. 9. <ul><li>Glomerulus brings a large surface area of blood capillaries in close contact with Bowman’s capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid filtered from blood under pressure ( filtration) </li></ul><ul><li>Glomerular filtrate produced containing: </li></ul><ul><li>- Water </li></ul><ul><li>- Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>- Salts </li></ul><ul><li>- Urea </li></ul><ul><li>(Protein molecules and red blood </li></ul><ul><li>cells do not pass into tubule as </li></ul><ul><li>they are TOO BIG!!!!) </li></ul>Blood travels through narrow capillary towards renal vein Glomerular filtrate Filtration Blood from renal artery enters wide capillary Bowman’s Capsule
  10. 10. Reabsorption by Kidney <ul><li>Once the main components of Glomerulur filtrate enter the bloodstream, they are no longer in bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>If nothing more happened in the Nephron then all the useful stuff would be lost in the urine! </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Glucose, Water and some Salts need to be reabsorbed! </li></ul>
  11. 12. Dialysis <ul><li>Process of removing waste products and excess fluid from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Also controls blood pressure and helps body to keep proper balance of chemicals such as potassium, sodium, and chlorine. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemodialysis (HD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peritoneal dialysis (PD). </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. How does dialysis work? <ul><li>It uses a membrane as a filter and a solution called dialysate to regulate the balance of fluid, salts and minerals carried in the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>The toxins pass from the blood through the membrane and into the dialysate to be taken away. </li></ul><ul><li>These toxins would normally be filtered by the kidneys and taken away in urine. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Hemodialysis <ul><li>The process takes place outside the body </li></ul><ul><li>A dialysis machine pumps small amounts of blood out of the body and through a filter called an artificial kidney or Dialyzer. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dialyzer filters extra fluid & wastes from blood. </li></ul><ul><li>The Blood is then pumped back into the body. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Fig. Hemodialysis setup </li></ul>
  15. 16. Dialyzer
  16. 17. Dialyzer contd… <ul><li>The dialyzer is a large container containing thousands of small fibers through which blood is passed. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid, called dialysate, is added to the Dialyzer to : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help filter out extra fluid and wastes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add chemicals that your body uses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Dialysate is pumped around the fibers. The fibers allow wastes and extra fluids to pass from blood into the solution, which carries them away. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Complications of Hemodialysis
  18. 19. Peritoneal Dialysis <ul><li>The process takes place inside the body. </li></ul><ul><li>A tube (catheter) is inserted into the abdomen during operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Special dialysis fluid is drained into the abdomen. </li></ul><ul><li>Excess waste and water pass from the blood into the fluid and after a few hours the fluid is drained out. </li></ul>
  19. 20. PD as a Three-step process:
  20. 23. Types of Peritoneal Dialysis
  21. 24. 1) Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis <ul><li>Involves 3 main steps </li></ul><ul><li>FILL </li></ul><ul><li>A bag of solution called dialysate is put into the abdomen through the catheter </li></ul><ul><li>The bag holds about 2 quarts of fluid </li></ul><ul><li>It takes about 10 to 20 minutes to fill </li></ul><ul><li>When the bag is empty, it can be clamped off </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>DWELL </li></ul><ul><li>The solution stays in the abdomen 4 to 6 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>While the solution is in the abdomen, extra fluid and wastes </li></ul><ul><li>move from the blood and into the solution. </li></ul><ul><li>DRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>Using gravity, the solution is then drained </li></ul><ul><li>out of the body into a drain bag. </li></ul><ul><li>The drained fluid is much like urine and </li></ul><ul><li>will be clear yellow. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes about 10 to 20 minutes to drain. </li></ul>
  23. 26. 2) Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis <ul><li>Involves same fill, dwell and drain cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>But the dwell time is shorter and a machine does the exchanges. </li></ul><ul><li>The dwell time is about 1½ hours. </li></ul><ul><li>The machine is set up and the person is connected to the machine for 8 to 10 hours during the night. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Hemodialysis Peritoneal Dialysis <ul><li>Slower </li></ul><ul><li>Requires less equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Causes fewer physiologic adverse reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Requires professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Faster </li></ul><ul><li>Requires more equipment </li></ul><ul><li>More physiologic adverse reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Can be performed by patient itself </li></ul>Hemodialysis v/s Peritoneal Dialysis
  25. 28. THANK YOU