A starting definition… <ul><li>Creative nonfiction writers provide factual information in creative ways. Creative nonfictioncan be described as a hybrid genre that pulls in elements of fiction (literary techniques), the writer’s perspective, and factual information. Lee Gutkind (2002) defines creative nonfiction as “a concept that offers great flexibility and freedom, while adhering to the basic tenets of nonfiction writing and/or reporting. In creative nonfiction, writers can be poetic and journalistic simultaneously” (2). </li></ul>
Creative nonfiction is also known as: <ul><li>The Art of Fact </li></ul><ul><li>The Art of Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Gonzo Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-gonzo Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>The Fourth Genre (after poetry, fiction and drama) </li></ul><ul><li>The Literature of Reality </li></ul><ul><li>New Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Literary Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative Nonfiction </li></ul>
Into the Wild <ul><li>The movie Into the Wild was just released in theaters and is based on a book of the same name, which was written by Jack Krakauer. Krakauer also wrote Into Thin Air and Under the Banner of Heaven . While Into Thin Air is a true account of what happened when he became stranded on Mt. Everest with a group of climbers, the other two stories are works of creative nonfiction- what that means is, he was not there when these things happened, but he writes as though he was. Krakauer is able to do this because of the extensive research he did. He tells the stories in an engaging manner, and the books read as fictional novels- but they are based in truth. </li></ul><ul><li>To get an idea of what the story Into the Wild is about please visit the link http://www.intothewild.com/ and watch the short clips from the film. Remember, this is based on a true story (thus the terminology “nonfiction”) but it is also creative in that Krakauer was not there, he did not experience these things and he did not know anything about these experiences until he did extensive research. </li></ul><ul><li>Go check out the link! I really think it will help you to begin to understand the concept of creative nonfiction. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Research in creative nonfiction: </li></ul><ul><li>When journalists immerse themselves in a topic, they become “silent observers” living within the topic and around the people to notice and observe. Gutkind illustrates this in the article, “The 5 R’s of Creative Nonfiction,” as he immerses himself withinthe work of a transplant surgeon. He is observing a woman’s heart transplant operation when the doctor asks him for help. The surgeons needed someone to go talk to the patient’s husband. Gutkind steps out of his role as observer and becomes a participant. Hereis what he does as a writer and how he describes it: “ ‘Immersion journalists’ immerse or involve themselves in the lives of the people about whom they are writing in ways that will provide readers with a rare and special intimacy” (2). </li></ul>
Examples of Creative Nonfiction <ul><li>You may already be more familiar with creative nonfiction than you think. Have you ever read or heard of these books? </li></ul><ul><li>Truman Capote : In Cold Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Bowden : Black Hawk Down </li></ul><ul><li>Maxine Hong Kingston : The Woman Warrior </li></ul><ul><li>Chuck Klosterman : Sex, Drugs, and Cocoa Puffs: A Low Culture Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>Jon Krakauer : Into the Wild , Into Thin Air </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Woolf : A Room of One's Own </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Keneally : Schindler's Ark </li></ul>
Individual perception & Nonfiction <ul><li>Nonfiction differs from other literary genres because it is directly tied to an individual’s perception of reality. Other literary genres represent “reality.” Root explains this further: “It’s that preoccupation with factuality, with preexisting reality, with a world outside the writer’s mind, that he or she has to interpret and represent, that separates it from the other ‘three genres’” (3). In creative nonfiction, the writer combines research, as Gutkind teaches, with reflection, all of this staying in reality. Where does the creative element arise? According to Root, CNF writers use literary elements such as dialogue, attention to setting, first-person narration, and creative use of language. </li></ul>
CRITERIA FOR CREATIVE NONFICTION <ul><li>LOW ___________ </li></ul><ul><li>Most info from outside the writer (Informative and Transactional) </li></ul><ul><li>Static thinking, done deal; writer presents the final judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Closed ending: only one interpretation possible </li></ul><ul><li>Tells story in chronological order </li></ul><ul><li>Literal transitions ( next, however, therefore, second, third, finally , etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Tells (reports, summarizes, generalizes) </li></ul><ul><li>___________ HIGH </li></ul><ul><li>Most info from inside the writer (Personal Memoir) </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of mind; writer unfolds her thinking and changes, becomes part of the story </li></ul><ul><li>Open ending: two or more possible interpretations (ambiguity) </li></ul><ul><li>Shows scenes not dependent on time, yet fit together </li></ul><ul><li>Shows (dialogue, metaphor, details, and details about details) </li></ul><ul><li>Resonance (key image, word, phrase recurs, sometimes in ironic ways) </li></ul>
Resources for your review <ul><li>Articles that give a more general understanding of creative nonfiction: </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a wonderful article from Poynter Online about creative nonfiction: http://www.poynter.org/column.asp?id=52&aid=30407 </li></ul><ul><li>This is a great (and very short) overview as well: http://www.class.uidaho.edu/druker/nonfic.html </li></ul><ul><li>Another good one: http://www.pitt.edu/~bdobler/readingnf.html#gutkind </li></ul>
Publishing Creative Nonfiction: <ul><li>Creative Nonfiction markets include newspapers , magazines, literary journals and books. Here's a short list of the major outlets: • Fourth Genre • River Teeth • Creative Nonfiction • The American Scholar • Doubletake • The Georgia Review • Harper’s • The New Yorker • Natural Bridge </li></ul>
<ul><li>Citation Format : Fox, Roy F., and Amy A. Lannin. "Belly Up to the Pond: Teaching Teachers Creative Nonfiction in an Online Class." The Writing Instructor. 2007. </li></ul>
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