Scientific Method


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Scientific Method

  1. 1. Scientific Method
  2. 2. Scientific Method <ul><li>It is the TOOL scientists use to find the answer to their questions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a step-by-step process. </li></ul>
  3. 3. ScientificMethod <ul><li>Step 1: Choose a Problem </li></ul><ul><li>What are you trying to find out? </li></ul><ul><li>Does eating breakfast affect school performance? </li></ul><ul><li>Does mold need light to grow? </li></ul><ul><li>This is your BIG QUESTION!!! </li></ul>It has to be something you can test!
  4. 4. Step 2: Research <ul><li>In order to set up your experiment properly, you must know something about the topic you will be experimenting with . </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise you might not know that mold grows best in moist conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Good places to start are: the library, encyclopedias, and the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT SKIP THIS STEP!!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Step 3:Make a hypothesis. After you have researched your topic, you can form a hypothesis about it.
  6. 6. Hypothesis <ul><li>The hypothesis is what you think will happen. </li></ul><ul><li>It is your idea about the solution to the problem you have chosen. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, “I think that bread mold can grow where there is no light.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Step 4: Procedure <ul><li>Before you conduct your experiment to test your hypothesis, you must plan out how you will do your experiment . </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the experiment, step by step . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>First I will take two pieces of bread from the same loaf. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, I will place each of them in a ziploc bag. </li></ul><ul><li>Then I will put 5 drops of water on each. </li></ul><ul><li>Next, I will place one bag in a dark cabinet and the other on the window sill. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>I will look at the bread, each day at 3:30 and observe any changes. </li></ul><ul><li>I will draw how the bread looks at each observation on my observation chart. </li></ul><ul><li>After the 14 th day, I will make a conclusion based on my findings </li></ul><ul><li>There are three other things that you must know about when setting up your experiment: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Control A control is a part of the experiment that is used to compare your results to . For example: The control could be a piece of bread that is just left in a ziploc bag in the room (not in a window or dark cabinet, no drops of water added).
  11. 11. Variable <ul><li>The variable in an experiment is the part of the experiment that is being manipulated; that changes. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: In our experiment, the amount of light the bread was exposed to was the variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Your experiment will only have one variable. If you have too many variables, you will not know which one caused your experiment’s results. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Controlled Variable <ul><li>A controlled variable is very important to your experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the part of the experiment that is not affected by the variable being tested . It must be constant (or remain the same) or you cannot tell if your experiment worked . </li></ul><ul><li>For example: I used the same type of bread, and the same amount of water was added to each. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Step 5: Results <ul><li>After conducting your experiment, analyze your results . This is sometimes called “Analysis”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: I noticed that the bread in the dark conditions had more mold throughout the experiment. The one in the window had some mold, but not as much. </li></ul>
  14. 14. This analysis of your data will help you come to your… Conclusion (Step 6) Your conclusion is what you have decided based on your experiment . Your conclusion states whether or not your hypothesis was right .
  15. 15. For example: “ Because the bread in the dark cabinet grew a lot of mold, my hypothesis that mold does not need light to grow is correct.” Remember: Just because your hypothesis was incorrect, does not mean that you have made a mistake . It actually means that you conducted an objective, scientific investigation. Congratulations! You just learned something new and probably taught someone else something new.
  16. 16. Let’s review… <ul><li>Identify a problem: Your big question – What are you trying to find out? </li></ul><ul><li>Research your topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate a hypothesis: What do you think will happen? </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: Plan your experiment, step-by-step. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Analyze your data. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Was your hypothesis correct? </li></ul>