L.O.V.E.

1,165 views
968 views

Published on

L.O.V.E. is a long-term ongoing scientific inquiry into the nature of relationships on this planet. Beginning with brain science and emerging into anatomy, it explores theoretical connections from neuroscience and yoga practice.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,165
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

L.O.V.E.

  1. 1. Michal Willinger, 2012Decision making seminar with:Dr. Itzhack Aharon Many thanks to: Daniel Levy (structure) Tamir Goldberg (encouragement) Mario Mikulincer (containment) l.o.v.e. and decision-making
  2. 2. The Polyvagal Theory (via Porges, 1995) The vagal nerves. Note when a human AIR FLOW being is standing upright, there is a “ladder” from brain to heart of electrical nerve fibers.
  3. 3. The Polyvagal Theory (via Porges, 1995) Once upon a time, Before the advent of a complex nervous system, the nervous system of aquatic animals could only reduce heart rate by floating, and waiting for the excitement to go away. There was no channel for the brain to tell the heart what to do.
  4. 4. The Polyvagal Theory (via Porges, 1995) Then, an exciting change occurred. Evolved forms of life emerged with a second vagal nerve pathway that connected the brain to send the heart messages for the first time. Animals were able to feel calm as well as to feel excitement.
  5. 5. The Polyvagal Theory (via Porges, 1995) Stephen Porges discovered the vagal nerves hold the key to a third system of the body that is beyond fight or flight. It is called, communication. Spirituality, conversation and organization emerge as a function to lift and lower the rate of the heart at will.
  6. 6. Are we special? We perhaps are not so special. Many, many species have vagal nerve branches that allow forcommunication to occur. But we are upright. upright Could there be a relationship between Jacob’s Ladder and our anatomy?
  7. 7. Are we connected? We perhaps are not so connected. Many studies have failed to support overt psychic phenomenon or mystical explanations for thought and consciousness. But we are conscious. conscious Could there be a relationship between consciousness and anatomical alignment?
  8. 8. In connection: emerging order The ACC seems to be especially involved when effort is needed to solve problems of energy and trust. The ventral part of the ACC (internal consolidation) projects to the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, and the anterior insula (the internal reactionary system). I propose more metabolic energy is required to get over the "hill" of altering any internal motivation state at rest; or in a self-feeding loop of action and reaction. Frontal lobe inhibition must create a schematic of effort to "convince" the ACC that it is neither too much energy nor too little energy to "trust" an imagined OFC-pleasant future is possible and worthwhile.
  9. 9. In connection: emerging order Parietal touch and space diverts focus from imagined inner pain, stress and inaccurate representations of body-external threat to inner conceptions of space, time, distance and achievable states of internal homeostasis. The mind directs the body with the drive of the imagination and self-observed rewards. At a certain point, sensory "fuel" is needed to feedback OT sensitivity into the system in order to prevent receptor scaffolding from decaying from lack of use. One could reasonably deduce that physical isolation and non- touch over time will produce an excitable and indifferent organism who suffers from chronic stress or freezing - the last and oldest evolutionary defense of "playing dead" in order to conserve energy.
  10. 10. In connection: the internal organs(insula, homeostasis)
  11. 11. In connection: the parietal lobe(skin, space, distance)
  12. 12. In connection: the nerves-system (organization of energy and muscle movement)
  13. 13. what physical laws rule these elements? the vagal nerve : in connection Jacob’s Ladder: The vagal system: When two currents Lining the spine are parallel, they from heart to brain, form a ladder of two parallel energy. currents up the body center.
  14. 14. So Michal, What is L.O.V.E.?L = Long-termO = On-lineV = Velocity ofE = Evolution
  15. 15. Part One: The Machinery: the Brain
  16. 16. The ACC.A = Anterior (before)C = Cingulate (a circle around something)C = Cortex (bark, i.e. an edge)The anterior cingulate cortex is a circle of surface neurons around your insula.
  17. 17. The vmPFC or the OFC.V = Ventro (belly)M = Medial (next to the middle)P = Pre (before)F = Frontal (front; i.e. the forehead)O = Orbito (eyes)F = (see above)C = (see previous slide)
  18. 18. The vmPFC or the OFC.The vmPFC, or the OFC, is the middle area of surface neurons behind the eyeballs and behind the forehead. Image courtesy of the “connectome” imaging project, MIT, Boston.
  19. 19. Ready to jump in?Option for clip 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vYwOtTMUz0c
  20. 20. Let’s map the ACC.The anterior cingulate cortex can bedivided anatomically based on dorsal(“cognitive”) and ventral (“emotional”)components.SOURCE:Bush G, Luu P, Posner MI (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4 (6): 215–222.
  21. 21. Huh? What does this mean? To get the answer, we first have to know about the structure that the cortex is “cingulating.” Do you remember what it is?
  22. 22. The Insula Your sylvian fissure: Protecting your limbic system since fMRI. First, imagine I take the “sylvian fissure” and open it up to peek inside.
  23. 23. The red area is what I am interested in. Hey, wait, what does “insula” mean?
  24. 24. In both hemispheres, there is an insulatingsheath of neurons who project to dorsal andventral “streams” in the brain. SOURCE: Bush G, Luu P, Posner MI (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4 (6): 215– 222. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(00) 01483-2.
  25. 25. Inside vs. Outside The dorsal stream traditionally is called “emotional”, but this is not so accurate: It is the stream that is sourced by the interior of the body (skin and deeper) from the anterior insula, which processes internal body states.SOURCE:Critchley, H.D. (2005). Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration. Journal of ComparativeNeurology, 493 (1): 154–66.
  26. 26. Can you name 3 or more examplesof internal body states?HomeostasisStatus of internal organsSympathetic activationParasympathetic relaxationHeart rateBreath rate
  27. 27. Outside vs. Inside The ventral stream traditionally is called cognitive, but this is not so accurate: It is the stream which is sourced by the exterior of the body (beyond the skin) from the posterior insula, which processes external body states.SOURCE:Critchley HD (December 2005). "Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration". Journal ofComparative Neurology, 493 (1): 154–66.
  28. 28. Can you name 3 or more examplesof external body states?HeatVibrationTextureTouchPainCold
  29. 29. THOUGHT-BREAK:What is the relationship between ACC-insula position and its structure/function? Hint: Let’s start with simple nature. Here is a flower that looks a lot like a brain. Up close, there is complexity. But it’s still one thing, and each petal isn’t so different from the others.
  30. 30. Note for good understanding of our insula and ACC function: 1. Any anterior brain function is an abstraction of its posterior (see source). 2. The ventral channel is sourced by the posterior insula and the dorsal channel is sourced by the anterior insula. SO: Thinking back to internal and external body states, what can we deduce?IN SUPPORT OF MY DEDUCTION:Kita, S. et. al. 2011. Does Conditioned Taste Aversion Learning in the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis ProduceConditioned Fear? Biological Bulletin, 220: 71-81.
  31. 31. Let’s map the dorsal ACC.
  32. 32. Let’s map the dorsal ACC simply: PFC SII targets targets Anterior cingulate sources Parietal FEF targets targets The dorsal ACC (external consolidation) projects to the PFC, parietal cortex, sensory-motor system and the frontal eye fields. In this case, note that targets may also be sources.SOURCE:Posner M. & DiGirolamo, G.J. 1998. Executive attention: Conflict, target detection, and cognitive contro". InParasuraman R. The attentive brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  33. 33. Let’s map the dorsal ACC visually: PFC SII targets targets Yes/No/If/Then muscle-motion Anterior cingulate sources decisions and feelings Parietal FEF targets target touch and spaceVisual Key (Willinger):PFC = the ultimate inhibitorSII = body-sensory eye movementsFrontal eye fields = eye motions (saccades) (saccades)Parietal = touch and space
  34. 34. Let’s map the ventral ACC.
  35. 35. Let’s map the ventral ACC simply: Insular Amygdalic Feedback targets Anterior cingulate sources Hypothalamic Nucleus targets accumbens targets The ventral ACC (internal consolidation) projects to the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, and anterior insula. Note also, targets may be sources.SOURCE:Allman J., Hakeem A., Erwin J., Nimchinsky E., Hof P. (2001). The anterior cingulate cortex. The evolution of aninterface between emotion and cognition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 935(1): 107–17.
  36. 36. Let’s map the ventral ACC visually: PFC SII targets targets Emotion from Internal body the face Anterior states cingulate emotion sources Homeostasis decisions and feelings Parietal FEF targets target instinctVisual Key (Willinger): Motivations and addictionsAmygdala = primary emotional arousalHypothalamus = primary instinctual arousalNucleus accumbens = motivations and addictionsAnterior insula = homeostasis
  37. 37. Part One: Article IAOptimal Decision Making and the Anterior Cingulate CortexResearch team: Steven K. Kennerly (University College London) Mark E. Walton (University of Oxford) Timothy E.J. Behrens (Oxford fMRI Center) Mark J. Buckley (Oxford) Matthew F.S. Rushworth (Oxford & Oxford fMRI Center)APA citation:Kennerly, S., Walton, M., Behrens, T., Buckley, M., & Rushworth, M. (2006). Optimal Decision Making and the AnteriorCingulate Cortex. Nature/Neuroscience, published online doi:10.1038/nn1724.
  38. 38. TRUSTDEFIANCEENERGY
  39. 39. Article IA – The researchers asked thefollowing Research Questions: 1. What is the relationship of the ACC and effort? 2. Why are efforts low when the ACC is damaged? 3. Why when the ACC is damaged do we observe: i. impatience, ii. vacillation in decision-making; and iii. imperviousness to change?APA citation:Kennerly, S., Walton, M., Behrens, T., Buckley, M., & Rushworth, M. (2006). Optimal Decision Making and the AnteriorCingulate Cortex. Nature/Neuroscience, published online doi:10.1038/nn1724.
  40. 40. Article IA – The researchers proposed the following Hypothesis:Perhaps the ACC makes the effort of reward appear greater thanit actually is.Therefore, learning-based decisions toward a goal state is moreof an exaggerated effort than in reality.APA citation:Kennerly, S., Walton, M., Behrens, T., Buckley, M., & Rushworth, M. (2006). Optimal Decision Making and the AnteriorCingulate Cortex. Nature/Neuroscience, published online doi:10.1038/nn1724.
  41. 41. Article IA – The research weighed thefollowing Methods:1. Training rats and monkeys with and without lesions in the ACC to obtain a reward of juice by pressing a lever.• Training rats with and without lesions in the ACC to obtain a reward of juice by tracking a visual target with delay. Measurements are via singular neuron electrical recordings cross-referenced across brain regions.APA citation:Kennerly, S., Walton, M., Behrens, T., Buckley, M., & Rushworth, M. (2006). Optimal Decision Making and the AnteriorCingulate Cortex. Nature/Neuroscience, published online doi:10.1038/nn1724.
  42. 42. Get-Real Break: The equipment procedure includes mouse surgery, training and learning, execution and autopsy. We teach the mouse to think slowly over time, and when we are satisfied he has learned, his neurons are sacrificed on the altar of science. Just saying.
  43. 43. Article IA – The researchers found thefollowing Results:1. The ACC is involved with the retaining of learning involving the positive value of rewards.• Lesions to the PFC, OFC or vmPFC do not show similar results when reward-based learning is controlled without reward-based rule structure. The ACC is particularly involved in retaining good memories for future reward of current efforts over time.APA citation:Kennerly, S., Walton, M., Behrens, T., Buckley, M., & Rushworth, M. (2006). Optimal Decision Making and the AnteriorCingulate Cortex. Nature/Neuroscience, published online doi:10.1038/nn1724.
  44. 44. The scientists couldnot teach ACC-damaged animals to: 1. Remember being satisfied from a reward. 2. Accurately calculate the effort needed to gain a future reward. 3. Socially learn.The scientists couldteach ACC-damagedanimals to: 1. Memorize rules. 2. Follow rules. 3. Keep reaction times up to par in a task.
  45. 45. Article IA – The researchers presented the following points of Discussion:1. The positive rewards hypothesis explains why the ACC is involved with the retaining of learning involving the positive value of rewards• It also explains why memorizing rules or reaction times is not effected by ACC lesions. Further research should distinguish between value-based learning (ACC), effort-based learning (hypothalamus), and rule- based learning (PFC). Researchers should take care to consolidate past studies and avoid out-of-date explanations for behaviors. APA citation: Kennerly, S., Walton, M., Behrens, T., Buckley, M., & Rushworth, M. (2006). Optimal Decision Making and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex. Nature/Neuroscience, published online doi:10.1038/nn1724.
  46. 46. Part Two: Article IBDecision Making and Reward in the Frontal Cortex:Complementary Evidence from Neurophysiological andNeuropsychological StudiesResearch team: Steven K. Kennerly (University College London) Mark E. Walton (University of Oxford)APA citation:Kennerly, S., Walton, M. (2011). Decision Making and Reward in the Frontal Cortex: Complementary Evidence fromNeurophysiological and Neuropsychological Studies. Behavioral Neuroscience, 125(3), 297-317.
  47. 47. Article IB – The research reviewexplored the relationship between:1. ACC learning and effort-based action. ACC lesions and lesions in other brain areas. ACC and learning the value of actions.APA citation:Kennerly, S., Walton, M. (2011). Decision Making and Reward in the Frontal Cortex: Complementary Evidence fromNeurophysiological and Neuropsychological Studies. Behavioral Neuroscience, 125(3), 297-317.
  48. 48. Article IB – My summary of the authors’ review results is the following:• ACC and addiction appears to project dopaminergic motivation to categorization processes in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere, which subsequently “zooms out” of ‘long-term’ or ‘distant’ if-then rules.• ACC and delayed gratification appears to project to the vmPFC of the right hemisphere, which subsequently “zooms in” to ‘short-term’ repulsions, or ‘close’ if-then rules. Further review should examine research that links “zoomed-out” affect regulation and the right hemisphere to “zoomed-in” affect regulation in the right hemisphere via relevant pathways of neurotransmission. Note that generally active left PFC’s tend to produce attractive behaviors and active right PFC’s tend to produce repulsive behaviors. There is evolutionary animal-studies preliminarily supporting as to why; namely, the right hemisphere is mouth-oriented and the left hemisphere is body-oriented.
  49. 49. Other sources for cross-reference of this summary:Bush, G., Vogt, B., Holmes, J., Dale, A. Greve, D., Jenike, M., Rosen, B. (2002). Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Science, 99(1), 523-528.Davidson, R & Irwin, W. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in CognitiveScience, 3(1), 1-21.Deng, C. & Rogers, L. (2009). “Factors Affecting Lateralization and Chicks” in Comparative Vertabrate Lateralization,edited by Rogers, L. University of New England: Australia.Davidson, R. (2004). What does the prefrontal cortex “do” in affect: Prospectives in frontal EEG asymmetry research.Biological Psychology, 67, 219-234.Kennerly, S., Walton, M., Behrens, T., Buckley, M., & Rushworth, M. (2006). Optimal Decision Making and the AnteriorCingulate Cortex. Nature/Neuroscience, published online doi:10.1038/nn1724.Lamar, M. (2006). Neuroscience and Decision Making. SOL-UK Workshop: Triarchy Press, London.Letzkus, P., Boeddeker, N., Wood, J., Shao-Wu, Z., Srinivasan, M. (2008). Lateralization of visual learning in thehoney bee. Biology Letters, 4(1), 16-19.
  50. 50. Part THREE: The Machinery: The Skin
  51. 51. Touch. The parietal cortex stores space and time relative to the embodiment of touch. Brain axon imaging from the Human Connectome Project, MIT.SOURCE:Rakitin, B. 2006. Introduction to Neuroscience, Lecture 2, Columbia University.Levy, D. 2009. Biological Psychology, Lecture 3, Raphael Racanti International School of Psychology.
  52. 52. Parietal touch taps into bi-directional feedback loops between the OFC and insular cortex. Parietal Base OFC (pleasant or unpleasant) INSULA (external/internal homeostasis)BASE SOURCE FOR PARIETAL FUNCTIONING (any textbook, and in particular):Rakitin, B. 2006. Introduction to Neuroscience, Columbia University.Mudrick, L. 2009. Biological Psychology Recitation, Raphael Racanti International School of Psychology.
  53. 53. The main components of touch and decisions: Parietal axons tap directly into opiate-producing source neurons in the OFC. Opioids in turn reduce pain and facilitate the release of oxytocin. In healthy animals, oxytocin overwhelms the presence of cortisol. When unchecked, cortisol destroys the primary line of defender-cells in the immune system to activate PARIETAL LOBE defensive behavior. OFC pleasur e INSULA external/internal homeostasisSOURCE:Field, T. (2010). Touch for socioemotional and physical well-being: a review. Devlopmental Review, (30), 367-383.Uvnas, K.. & Peterson, M. (2005). Oxytocin, a Mediator of Anti-Stress, Well-being, Social Interaction, Growth and Healing. Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, 52(1), 57-80.
  54. 54. Under the skin(all skin cellular imaging from www.cell.com)
  55. 55. The surface of the skin is comprised of “zombie cells” – they remove nutrients only and give nothing back. The real action takes place in the deep nerve pressureOxytocin and the Skin receptors underneath.
  56. 56. 1. Mammals possess tiny hair cells hooking into nerves in the third layer of skin. 3. These “deep pressure receptors” terminate inDeep hair-based axons. the brain-OFC for pleasure (or pain) and opiate release (or Substance P). A SUPPORTING PAPER: Field, T. (2010). Touch for socioemotional and physical well-being: a review. Devlopmental Review, (30), 367-383.Surface hair cells.
  57. 57. THOUGHT BREAK: What organizes mental concepts of “space” and “distance” in my brain? What is the relationshipbetween spatial organization, and my decisions?
  58. 58. Oxytocin: Skin to Blood to Brain - Manipulating Time and Space? Cosmic filaments create a “hand” in space. NASA, 2009 The oxytocin receptor is unique because it self-replicates via blood transport to brain cells and the skin. OT responds to any modality containing vibration and rhythm to create self-responding patterns at a preferred frequency. A RECENT OT STUDY: Gutnick, A., Blechman, J., Kaslin, J., Herwig, J., Belting, H.G., Affolter, M., Bonkowsky, J., Levkowitz, J. The Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Oxytocin Is Required for Formation of the Neurovascular Interface of the Pituitary. Developmental Cell, 21(4), 642.
  59. 59. Be Mindful for what’s ahead that….Once oxytocin locks into a phase pattern, it is repeated internally in cycles of solar and lunar rhythms*……and these cycles of addiction can be the most rewarding, devastating and humbling aspects of our ACC-bearing species: The infatuation with other humans, the self, and a feeling of soothing loving-peace in contact with living bodies existing within our frequencies of sensory perception.*(we will go into depth in Part III).
  60. 60. Part Four : Connecting the DotsThe parietal lobe, the anterior cingulate cortex, and decision -making.
  61. 61. Part Four : Article ICParietal Cortex and Insula Relate to Evidence SeekingRelevance to Reward-Related DecisionsResearch team: Nicolas Furl (Laboratory of Neuropsychology, NIMH) Bruno Averbeck (Laboratory of Neuropsychology, NIMH)APA citation:Furl, N. & Averbeck, B. (2011). Parietal Cortex and Insula Relate to Evidence Seeking Relevance to Reward RelatedDecisions. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(48), 72-82.
  62. 62. Article IC – The research asked thefollowing Research Questions:1. What brain areas are active in collecting careful evidence and making decisions in the ACC?2. How does seeking more evidence before a decision compare success by random chance?3. Do people who tend to seek out less evidence have corresponding brain areas that are less active?APA citation:Furl, N. & Averbeck, B. (2011). Parietal Cortex and Insula Relate to Evidence Seeking Relevance to Reward RelatedDecisions. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(48), 72-82.
  63. 63. Article IC – The researchers proposedthe following Hypothesis: Perhaps neural substrates may be identify when a person decides to stay to collect more information rather than take a decision, or to move on.If so, identification of these areas will help us to consolidate otherfMRI studies in understanding the decision-making brain moreaccurately.APA citation:Furl, N. & Averbeck, B. (2011). Parietal Cortex and Insula Relate to Evidence Seeking Relevance to Reward RelatedDecisions. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(48), 72-82.
  64. 64. Article IC – The research weighedthe following Methods:1. Training humans on a computer game involving probability, jars, and beads of different colors.1. Jars were given monetary rewards and losses that required trial-and-error. Measurements compare participant choice to Bayesian statistical models of random chance, loss/ win frequencies, and recorded fMRI activation during the task.APA citation:Furl, N. & Averbeck, B. (2011). Parietal Cortex and Insula Relate to Evidence Seeking Relevance to Reward RelatedDecisions. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(48), 72-82.
  65. 65. Article IC – The research found the following Results:1. Searching for information activates the internal-ventral stream: insula, striatum (conditioned-learning), anterior cingulate, and parietal cortex.1. The stream is most active when the odds are at 60/40.3. The parietal lobe is the most active at the onset of loss; and the insula fluctuates in sync with choice of strategy.4. People tended to search less time than optimal for certainty: on average, maximum mathematical certainty required to examine a few more examples.APA citation:Furl, N. & Averbeck, B. (2011). Parietal Cortex and Insula Relate to Evidence Seeking Relevance to Reward RelatedDecisions. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(48), 72-82.
  66. 66. ENERGYDISTANCEEFFORT
  67. 67. Article IC – The researchers presented the following points of Discussion:1. Loss increases evidence-seeking.• People tend to investigate for less than is necessary, even when controlled for monetary gain and “hit” rates of accuracy.3. When there is no change in outcome, there is a bit more seeking of evidence, but it is still less than necessary. There appears to be a relationship between the flux of activation in the insula and the parietal lobe, for when a person is “full” of information and makes the decision to go inward, and strategize, or outward, and choose (Willinger). APA citation: Furl, N. & Averbeck, B. (2011). Parietal Cortex and Insula Relate to Evidence Seeking Relevance to Reward Related Decisions. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(48), 72-82.
  68. 68. Part Five: The Machinery: YOGA

×