Anatomical Position • The subject is standing erect, the arms of the subject are at the sides with the palms of the hands facing the observer, the feet are together, and the subject is facing the observer.
Common Carotid Artery• Anatomical Limit – • Right – begins at the level of the right sternoclavicular articulation and extends to the superior border of the thyroid cartilage. • Left – begins at the level of the second costal cartilage and extends to the superior border of the thyroid cartilage.
Common Carotid Artery• Origins – • Right – a terminal branch of the brachiocephalic artery. • Left – is a branch off the arch of the aorta.
Common Carotid Artery• Branches – • Right – no branches of the right common carotid, except the terminal bifurcation into the right internal and external carotid arteries. • Left – no branches except the terminal bifurcation into the left internal and external carotid arteries.
Common Carotid Artery• Branches of the Right and Left External Carotid Arteries – • Ascending pharyngeal • Superior thyroid • Lingual • Facial • Occipital • Posterior auricular • Maxillary • Superficial temporal
Common Carotid Artery• Branches of the Right and Left Internal Carotid Arteries – • Branches arising within the carotid canal • Ophthalmic • Anterior cerebral • Middle cerebral • Posterior communicating • Choroidal branches
Common Carotid Artery• Relationship of the Common Carotid to the Internal Jugular Vein – • The internal jugular vein lies…
Common Carotid Artery• Contents of the Carotid Sheath – • Internal jugular vein • Vagus nerve • Common carotid artery What is the carotid sheath?
Ascending Aorta• Originates at the left ventricle.• Branches – • Right Coronary Artery • Left Coronary Artery
Arch of the Aorta• Center of Arterial Solution Distribution• Branches – • Brachiocephalic Artery • Left Common Carotid Artery • Left Subclavian Artery
Right Subclavian• Begins at the right sternoclavicular articulation and extends to the lateral border of the first rib.• For full autopsy (neck organs removed) – branches need to be clamped.• Braches – • Vertebral Artery • Internal Thoracic artery • Inferior Thyroid
Left Subclavian • Begins at the level of the left second costal cartilage and extends to the lateral border of the first rib.
Descending Thoracic Aorta• Branches – • Include NINE (9) pair of thoracic intercostal arteries.
Descending Abdominal Aorta• Extends from the diaphragm to the lower border of the fourth lumbar vertebra.• Branches – • Parietal (Inferior Phrenic, Superior Suprarenals, Lumbar, Middle Sacral) • Visceral unpaired (Celiac Axis, Superior Mesenteric, Inferior Mesenteric) • Visceral paired (Middle Suprarenals, Renals, Internal Spermatic, Ovarian, Common Iliacs)
External Iliac Artery and Vein• Continuation of the common iliac artery.• Common iliac is a terminal branch of the abdominal aorta.• Extends to a point under the center of the inguinal ligament.• Lies exactly at this ligament lateral to the external iliac vein.
External Iliac Artery and Vein• Used in autopsied bodies for the injection of the lower extremities.• In unautopsied bodies, it can be used for the morbidly obese.• Iliofemoral –