Does your feedback
 feed forward?
Eddy White
                                JALT 2008
Tokyo Woman’s             Internati...
2



Feedback on law student essay
“Nonsense, rubbish,
disastrous! This
leads nowhere. It is
only your minimal
knowledge t...
3




  Targets
• Feedback
  background
• My feedback
  research
• Your
  feedback
  practices
4




Targets


Feedback
background
5




What is feedback? (Wiggins, 2004)

• Feedback is information
 about what was and was
 not accomplished, given
 a spe...
6
    Feedback: summative vs formative
•  Summative                •  Formative feedback -
   feedback is a               ...
7




 Targets

Your
feedback
practices
8
 Some key feedback questions
1. What do we say to students about
    their work?
2. How do we say it?
3. Do they take an...
9




Assessment methods in your courses?
10




   What
formative
 feedback
 practices
do you use
  in your
 courses?
11




discussion questions
1. What feedback practices do you
 find to be effective in your
 courses (i.e. that promote st...
12




 Targets


Feedback
background
13



Feedback: student dissatisfaction
14




Feedback: Student dissatisfaction
• The literature shows students are
  dissatisfied with feedback in terms of:
1. ...
15



Quality feedback
16




 Quality feedbacK:4 Criteria
• 1. It must be timely
• 2. It must be specific
• 3. It must be understandable to
  th...
• Feedback
is like fish,
 it goes off
   after a
    week.
18




Sadler (1989)
       • Sadler
         identified three
         conditions
         necessary for
         student...
19



   To benefit from feedback
        students must:
1.  Possess a concept of the goal/standard or
    reference level...
20




The power of feedback (Sadler,1989)

 It is closing the gap between
  where the students are and
  where they are a...
21


Feedforward
• Providing useful information
  to both the teacher and the
  student that will help them
  recognize wh...
22




Feedforward
• -feedback that is “forward-
  looking so that it can improve
  students’ learning and enhance
  their...
23
24




 3 major feedback questions
1.  Where am I going? (the goals) =
    feedup

2. How am I going? = feedback

3. Where...
25




(Hattie and Timperley, 2007)
26



Focus on Formative Feedback
(Shute, 2008), Review of Educational Research

• “The premise underlying most of
  the r...
Feedback which supports learning
1.  Is sufficient (in frequency; detail)
2.  Is provided quickly enough to be useful
3.  ...
29




 Targets


My
feedback
research
30




  Teacher
  written
feedback on
  student
   essays
31



Tokyo Woman’s Christian University
32




Junior
Composition

- third-year
Academic
Writing class
33




Junior Composition class

   essay cycle
34
35




essay topic:
   slang
36

Extract of essay first draft with teacher feedback (blue)




      essay topic: slang
37



Feedback end sheet

- attached to the
first essay draft
-  uses same
criteria as the
summative
assessment for the
fi...
38



research focus

 Does the feedback
   feed forward?
Students’ response
to teacher feedback
39




feedback intervention (FI)

 • Actions taken by an external
   agent to provide information
   regarding some aspec...
40


First draft   Final draft
41



first draft (thesis statement)




final draft
42




successful revisions (closing gaps)
43




unsuccessful revisions (open gaps)
44



Reasons for unsuccessful revisions?
• Studies of second language writing show
  that ESL students are willing to fol...
45




 My research
concludes . . .
46



•  Most revisions linked to the
 feedback provided did lead to
 text improvement in final drafts
 (‘closing the gaps...
47



Conclusion
48




 We learn faster, and much
  more effectively, when we
have a clear sense of how well
  we are doing and what we
 m...
49




Two questions for teachers to
       consider . . .
50




• How well are
  you doing with
  the feedback you
  provide to
  students?
• Does your
  feedback feed
  forward?
51




Feedforward
52




 • Thank you
for your time
and attention
53


 References
•  Carless, D. (2006). Differing perceptions in the feedback process. Studies in Higher
   Education, 31(...
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Transcript of "Does your feedback feed forward?"

  1. 1. Does your feedback feed forward? Eddy White JALT 2008 Tokyo Woman’s International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning Christian University Tokyo, Japan
  2. 2. 2 Feedback on law student essay “Nonsense, rubbish, disastrous! This leads nowhere. It is only your minimal knowledge that prevents me from giving you an F”. (in Raaheim, 2006)
  3. 3. 3 Targets • Feedback background • My feedback research • Your feedback practices
  4. 4. 4 Targets Feedback background
  5. 5. 5 What is feedback? (Wiggins, 2004) • Feedback is information about what was and was not accomplished, given a specific goal.
  6. 6. 6 Feedback: summative vs formative •  Summative •  Formative feedback - feedback is a response to student work, summary of students final output or while it is in progress performance, •  - identifies strong and weak includes a grade or aspects of performance, score gives suggestions for improvement •  It may help shape the next performance or •  - plays a part in ‘forming’ or process, but it is too shaping student response to late to play a part on the task being worked on the task being •  - aims to draw out students’ evaluated best possible performance
  7. 7. 7 Targets Your feedback practices
  8. 8. 8 Some key feedback questions 1. What do we say to students about their work? 2. How do we say it? 3. Do they take any notice? 4. How much does it help their learning payoff? 5. How well does it relate to students’ evidence of achievement of the intended learning outcomes? 6. How efficient is it for us?
  9. 9. 9 Assessment methods in your courses?
  10. 10. 10 What formative feedback practices do you use in your courses?
  11. 11. 11 discussion questions 1. What feedback practices do you find to be effective in your courses (i.e. that promote student learning)? 2. What feedback-related problems do you experience in the courses that you teach?
  12. 12. 12 Targets Feedback background
  13. 13. 13 Feedback: student dissatisfaction
  14. 14. 14 Feedback: Student dissatisfaction • The literature shows students are dissatisfied with feedback in terms of: 1.  Lacking specific advice to improve 2.  Being difficult to interpret 3.  Having a negative impact on self- perception and confidence (Carless, 2006)
  15. 15. 15 Quality feedback
  16. 16. 16 Quality feedbacK:4 Criteria • 1. It must be timely • 2. It must be specific • 3. It must be understandable to the receiver • 4. It must allow the student to act on the feedback (refine, revise, practice and retry) (Wiggins, 1997)
  17. 17. • Feedback is like fish, it goes off after a week.
  18. 18. 18 Sadler (1989) • Sadler identified three conditions necessary for students to benefit from feedback.
  19. 19. 19 To benefit from feedback students must: 1.  Possess a concept of the goal/standard or reference level being aimed for 2.  Compare the actual (or current) level of performance with that goal or standard 3.  Engage in appropriate action which leads to some closure of the gap (Sadler, 1989)
  20. 20. 20 The power of feedback (Sadler,1989) It is closing the gap between where the students are and where they are aiming to be that leads to the power of feedback.
  21. 21. 21 Feedforward • Providing useful information to both the teacher and the student that will help them recognize where gaps in student learning are and use that data to move forward with the intent of closing the gaps.
  22. 22. 22 Feedforward • -feedback that is “forward- looking so that it can improve students’ learning and enhance their future performance on assessed tasks.” How Assessment Supports Learning, Carless et al. (2006,)
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24 3 major feedback questions 1.  Where am I going? (the goals) = feedup 2. How am I going? = feedback 3. Where to next? = feedforward (Hattie and Timperley, 2007)
  25. 25. 25 (Hattie and Timperley, 2007)
  26. 26. 26 Focus on Formative Feedback (Shute, 2008), Review of Educational Research • “The premise underlying most of the research conducted in this area is that good feedback can significantly improve learning processes and outcomes, if delivered correctly”.
  27. 27. Feedback which supports learning 1.  Is sufficient (in frequency; detail) 2.  Is provided quickly enough to be useful 3.  Focuses on learning rather than on marks 4.  Is linked to assessment criteria/expected outcomes 5.  Makes sense to students 6.  Is received by students and attended to 7.  Is acted upon to improve performance
  28. 28. 29 Targets My feedback research
  29. 29. 30 Teacher written feedback on student essays
  30. 30. 31 Tokyo Woman’s Christian University
  31. 31. 32 Junior Composition - third-year Academic Writing class
  32. 32. 33 Junior Composition class essay cycle
  33. 33. 34
  34. 34. 35 essay topic: slang
  35. 35. 36 Extract of essay first draft with teacher feedback (blue) essay topic: slang
  36. 36. 37 Feedback end sheet - attached to the first essay draft -  uses same criteria as the summative assessment for the final draft -  a writing guide for students -  a teaching tool
  37. 37. 38 research focus Does the feedback feed forward? Students’ response to teacher feedback
  38. 38. 39 feedback intervention (FI) • Actions taken by an external agent to provide information regarding some aspect of one’s task performance. (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996)
  39. 39. 40 First draft Final draft
  40. 40. 41 first draft (thesis statement) final draft
  41. 41. 42 successful revisions (closing gaps)
  42. 42. 43 unsuccessful revisions (open gaps)
  43. 43. 44 Reasons for unsuccessful revisions? • Studies of second language writing show that ESL students are willing to follow closely the feedback provided by teachers, but such commentary “had the potential of miscommunicating and of being misunderstood.” (Lee & Schallert, 2008) • “Students need to have both the ‘will’ and the ‘skill’ to be successful in classrooms.” (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990)
  44. 44. 45 My research concludes . . .
  45. 45. 46 •  Most revisions linked to the feedback provided did lead to text improvement in final drafts (‘closing the gaps’) •  Supports empirical research that teacher feedback in multiple-draft classrooms does lead to improved student writing
  46. 46. 47 Conclusion
  47. 47. 48 We learn faster, and much more effectively, when we have a clear sense of how well we are doing and what we might need to do in order to improve. (Carless, 2006)
  48. 48. 49 Two questions for teachers to consider . . .
  49. 49. 50 • How well are you doing with the feedback you provide to students? • Does your feedback feed forward?
  50. 50. 51 Feedforward
  51. 51. 52 • Thank you for your time and attention
  52. 52. 53 References •  Carless, D. (2006). Differing perceptions in the feedback process. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 219-223. •  Gibbs, G. & Simpson, C. (2004-05). Conditions under which assessment supports learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, Issue 1, 3-29. •  Hattie, J., & Timperly, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. •  Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on perfor- •  mance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback interven- •  tion theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254–284. •  Lee, G. & Schallert, D. (2008). Meeting in the margins: Effects of the teacher student relationship on revision processes of EFL college students taking a composition course. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17, 165-182. •  Pintrich, P.R., & DeGroot, E.V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40. •  Raaheim, A. (2006). Do students profit from feedback? Seminar.net, Vol. 2, Issue 2 •  Sadler, R. (1989). Formative Assessment and the Design of Instructional Systems. Instructional Science,18, 119-144. •  Shute, V. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153-189. •  Wiggins, G. (1997). Feedback: How learning occurs. In: E. E. Chaffee (Ed.), Assessing impact: Evidence and action (pp. 31–39). Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. •  Wiggins, G. (2004) . Assessment as Feedback. New Horizons for Learning, http::www.newhorizons.org.

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