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Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
Final loex presentation
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Final loex presentation

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  • Greetings from AZ & ASU Lbrs I’m SH & this is my college EW Ellen & I are delighted to be here and are eager to share our exper’s teaching students to formulate a research questions using PICO
  • Greetings from AZ & ASU Lbrs I’m SH & this is my college EW Ellen & I are delighted to be here and are eager to share our exper’s teaching students to formulate a research questions using PICO
  • http://www.english-renaissance.com/2010/08/francis-bacon-quotations/ 2001 : Public exposure “ medical mistakes are blamed for as many as 98,000 lost lives annually A 21 st century article publicly exposed an industry and it’s “research to practice gap.’
  • 2001 : Public exposure “ medical mistakes are blamed for as many as 98,000 lost lives annually A 21 st century article publicly exposed an industry and it’s “research to practice gap.’
  • 2001 : Public exposure “ medical mistakes are blamed for as many as 98,000 lost lives annually A 21 st century article publicly exposed an industry and it’s “research to practice gap.’
  • 2001 : Public exposure “ medical mistakes are blamed for as many as 98,000 lost lives annually A 21 st century article publicly exposed an industry and it’s “research to practice gap.’
  • 2001 : Public exposure “ medical mistakes are blamed for as many as 98,000 lost lives annually A 21 st century article publicly exposed an industry and it’s “research to practice gap.’
  • 2001 : Public exposure “ medical mistakes are blamed for as many as 98,000 lost lives annually A 21 st century article publicly exposed an industry and it’s “research to practice gap.’
  • Since 1997, Health Science Librarians have Taught PICO in academic&workplace settings As you learn about PICO’s origins, you learn that it is the first info literacy skill taught in the EBP research process but how does it translate to other disciplines? Do we know, if asking a research question is difficult for students across disciplines? Is EBP migrating into other professions, industr’ Do librarians see this as a major information literacy skill that they should teach?
  • 2001 : Public exposure “ medical mistakes are blamed for as many as 98,000 lost lives annually A 21 st century article publicly exposed an industry and it’s “research to practice gap.’
  • a·cu·men /əˈkyo͞omən/ The PIL report’s findings revealed that: “ defining a research inquiry was overwhelming for students” Students “lacked research acumen for framing inquiry” Findings collection from over 8,000 students 25 US colleges and universities Sophomores, juniors, seniors 2010 National Research Study University of Washington Information School
  • Additional results reported students experiencing problems getting started, defining a topic, narrowing the topic, knowing if job is done, knowing if finished with process
  • Because “ defining a research inquiry is the fundamental research competency for completing college course assignments yet it stymied over two-thirds of the students in our sample” the PIL study recommends… Page 38
  • Because “ defining a research inquiry is the fundamental research competency for completing college course assignments yet it stymied over two-thirds of the students in our sample” the PIL study recommends… Page 38
  • READ slide first Of all the results, this was most poignant and timely to me. We don’t know if the PIL study done before 2000 would have had the same results, but we do know that increasing accountability in the workplace for best practices and the integration of new research – should get the attention of universities because we must prepare our students to be evidence-based across disciplines, industries.
  • You can see how 21 st century pedagogical teaching methods are Driven by workplace demands but just as the front-line practitioner faced a new accountability, so did the researcher. One of ASUs instructional imperatives is to “conduct use-inspired research”. What good does it do for the front-line practitioner to know how to formulate a question, search, find, read, and apply the research, if the research is not relevant to the workplace?
  • READ slide first Of all the results, this was most poignant and timely to me. We don’t know if the PIL study done before 2000 would have had the same results, but we do know that increasing accountability in the workplace for best practices and the integration of new research – should get the attention of universities because we must prepare our students to be evidence-based across disciplines, industries.
  • Of few randomly scanned guides, many identified the stages that the developing question can go through from, i.e. from broader to narrower but the “common advice” in many guides did Not prompt/teach the student to identify research elemts Research elements cannot be “mystery” elements, if students are required to know them to form a Focused question, search, and successful research paper.
  • How do we teach students to formulate a search question using PICO? I’ll begin w/an explanation of PICO and the “ question formulation process”.
  • How do we teach students to formulate a search question using PICO? I’ll begin w/an explanation of PICO and the “ question formulation process”.
  • In this slide, you find add’l synonyms, and augmented list of synonyms to represent the “P” in PICO. Ellen & I explored other synonyms that translate better across disciplines, And still prompt identification of research elements to be identified. But, in our research, we discovered that EBPs had already begun to incl ops.
  • In this slide, you find add’l synonyms, and augmented list of synonyms to represent the “P” in PICO. Ellen & I explored other synonyms that translate better across disciplines, And still prompt identification of research elements to be identified. But, in our research, we discovered that EBPs had already begun to incl ops.
  • The early developers did incorporate trad.“common advice” into formul’ process. a novice asks two questions a “background question” prompted by 5Ws usually self-direct’d to build knowledgebase lays foundation for asking the “ foreground question”, using PICO Possible Handout
  • Objective 2 Empower students’ search strategy First, teach students to search keywords for Population & Intervention. Expert searchers recommend this strategy in the Cochrane Handbook, 2011, xxxx. An observed favorite strategy of faculty and students is to search keywords for Population and Intervention in the TITLE field, a powerful search field that most databases support. Objective 3 Empower students’ search strategy A favorite because increases chances of retrieving a few highly relevant articles Keywords as major topics desired relationship between Population & Intervention.
  • When we move out of the health sciences, it’s sometimes difficult to identify the PICO elements. The background research and question is essential to helping identify those. Who is affected or What is the problem? AND How can it be resolved or Why is this happening?
  • Re-do the literature example
  • Search – Humanities FT
  • ABI/Inform
  • Lots of you are probably thinking about PICO questions. We would love for you to send us questions that you have set up using the PICO process. If you’d like our suggestions about how to set up a specific question using PICO, please email us and we’ll be more than happy to help you with that.
  • Greetings from AZ & ASU Lbrs I’m SH & this is my college EW Ellen & I are delighted to be here and are eager to share our exper’s teaching students to formulate a research questions using PICO
  • Transcript

    • 1. Spice up your library instruction with a little PICO Ellen Welty Sheila Hofstetter Arizona State University
    • 2. LibGuide http://libguides.asu.edu/PICO Ellen Welty Sheila Hofstetter [email_address] [email_address]
    • 3. Francis Bacon 1521-1629 “ A prudent question is one-half wisdom ” http://www.english-renaissance.com/2010/08/francis-bacon-quotations /
    • 4. 2001 : Public alarm Medical mistakes are blamed for as many as 98,000 lost lives annually . JAMIA 2001;8:398-399 doi:10.1136/jamia.2001.0080398
    • 5. 2001 : Public alarm Studies show it takes an average of 17 years to implement clinical research. JAMIA 2001;8:398-399 doi:10.1136/jamia.2001.0080398
    • 6. 2005: Workplace Readiness <ul><ul><li>Front line nurses – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ don’t understand or value research” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ have received little or no training in the use of tools to help them find evidence.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Am J Nurs. 2005 Sep;105(9):40-51;quiz 52 . </li></ul><ul><li>JAMIA 2001;8:398-399 doi:10.1136/jamia.2001.0080398 </li></ul>
    • 7. David Sackett 1997 <ul><li>Sackett, Evidence Based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach It </li></ul><ul><li>Taught that the first information literacy skill is formulating a research question using PICO. </li></ul><ul><li>That is still the first skill taught today </li></ul>
    • 8. Sackett 2002 <ul><ul><li>Formulating an answerable question is “the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hardest step that many people face”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sackett, 2000, Evidence-based medicine; how to practice and teach it, p. 13 </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Teaching PICO 1997 to 2011 <ul><ul><ul><li>Health Sciences Librarians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach PICO in academic and workplace settings </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 10. Evidence Based Librarianship 2010 <ul><ul><ul><li>Project Information Literacy (PIL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Washington </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_Fall2010_Survey_FullReport1.pdf </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 11. Project Information Literacy (PIL) <ul><ul><li>The PIL report’s findings revealed that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ defining a research inquiry was overwhelming for students” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students “lacked research acumen for framing inquiry” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_Fall2010_Survey_FullReport1.pdf (p.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    • 12. PIL Findings % of Students experiencing problems <ul><ul><li>84% getting started </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>66% defining a topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>62% narrowing the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>61% filtering through irrelevant results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>46% knowing if job is done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>37% knowing if finished with process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_Fall2010_Survey_FullReport1.pdf (p.25) </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. PIL Study Fundamental Research Competency <ul><ul><li>“ defining a research inquiry is the fundamental research competency for completing college course assignments….yet it stymied over two-thirds of the students in our sample” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_Fall2010_Survey_FullReport1.pdf (p. 38) </li></ul></ul>
    • 14. PIL Study Recommendations to [subject] librarians <ul><ul><li>Modify in-class sessions and reference encounters to emphasize the research process and formulate a research question over finding sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_Fall2010_Survey_FullReport1.pdf (p. 39) </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. PIL Study 21 st Century Workplace Are we“assessing how students are being prepared for the 21st century workplace” ? “ Is the campus graduating students with the necessary information literacy competencies for the 21 st century workplace?” http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_Fall2010_Survey_FullReport1.pdf (p. 40)
    • 16. ‘ CONDUCT USE-INSPIRED RESEARCH’ ASU
    • 17. Google Search 2011 A search for ‘thesis statements LibGuides’ yielded 108,000 results
    • 18. Common Advice <ul><li>“ Have a good argument.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t make your topic too broad or too narrow.” </li></ul>
    • 19. Session Objective 1 <ul><li>How do we teach students to formulate a search question using PICO? </li></ul>
    • 20. <ul><li>What is PICO? </li></ul>
    • 21. P I C O <ul><li>P = Population </li></ul><ul><li>I = Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>C = Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>O = Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Sackett, 1997, Evidence-based medicine; how to practice & Teach It, (p. 27.) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mclibrary.duke.edu/subject/ebm?tab=questiontable </li></ul>
    • 22. P I C O <ul><li>P = Identify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population w/ (health) condition of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal person or thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Straus, 2010, Evidence-based medicine; how to practice and teach it, ( p. 15 - 18) </li></ul><ul><li>Melnyk, 2011, Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice, (p. 31) </li></ul>
    • 23. P I C O <ul><li>I = Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention, therapy, treatment, tests </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnoses - select, interpret </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk, prevention – screen, reduce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etiology – cause, risk factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prognosis </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 24. P I C O <ul><li>C = Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True control placebo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard of care </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. P I C O <ul><li>O = Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of comparisons </li></ul>
    • 26. The Circle of Critical Thinking © 2011 Hofstetter and Welty *Worldviews Evid Based Nurs, 2005, v.2, n.3, 157-160
    • 27. Formulating a PICO question: Begin by asking two kinds of questions Background Question <ul><li>Asks about general topical elements: </li></ul><ul><li>who, what, where, when, why, how and a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>lays foundation for PICO. </li></ul><ul><li>Straus, 2010, Evidence-based medicine; how to practice and teach it, ( p. 15) </li></ul>Foreground Question <ul><li>Asks about research elements: </li></ul><ul><li>what is population, intervention, comparison, outcome </li></ul><ul><li>formulates research question and search strategy </li></ul>
    • 28. PICO Question | Healthcare Background | 5 Ws What can prevent falls in elderly? Foreground | PICO In elderly at risk of falls (P), how does tai chi (I) compared to risk assessment (C) affect fall prevention/reduction (O)?
    • 29. PICO Question | Healthcare Foreground In elderly at risk of falls (P), how does tai chi (I) compared to risk assessment (C) affect fall prevention/reduction (O)? Searches in PubMed SS1 Falls tai SS2 Falls [ti] tai [ti]
    • 30.  
    • 31.  
    • 32. PICO Question | Across Disciplines Background | 5 Ws Foreground | PICO Who, What Population, Problem How, Why Intervention, Cause Straus, 2010, Evidence-based medicine; how to practice and teach it, ( p. 15) Melnyk, 2011, Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice, (p. 31)
    • 33. PICO Question | Biology Background | 5 Ws What is causing the disappearance of colonies of bees worldwide? Foreground | PICO In colony collapse (P) how do viruses ( disease) (I) compared to habitat loss (C) predict the disorder?
    • 34. PICO Question | Biology Foreground | PICO In colony collapse (P) how do ( disease) viruses (I) compared with habitat loss (C) predict the disorder (O)? Searches in ABI/Inform SS1: colony collapse AND (virus or habitat) SS2: ti (colony collapse) AND (virus or habitat)
    • 35.  
    • 36.  
    • 37. PICO Question | American Literature Background | 5 Ws In Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn does the racism in post-war southern US affect the plot? Foreground | PICO In Twain’s Huckleberry Finn , (P) how does racism (I) compared to anti-racism (C) affect the plot?
    • 38. PICO Question | American Literature Foreground | PICO In Twain’s Huckleberry Finn , (P) how does racism (I) compared to anti-racism (C) affect the plot? Searches in Humanities FT SS1 Huckleberry Finn AND rac* SS2 Huckleberry Finn [ti] AND rac* [ti]
    • 39.  
    • 40.  
    • 41. PICO Question | Business Background | 5 Ws What causes rising oil prices? Foreground | PICO In rising oil prices (P), how do speculators (I) compared to regulation (C) influence oil prices (O)?
    • 42. PICO Question | Business Foreground | PICO In rising oil prices (P), how do speculators (I) compared to regulation (C) influence the oil prices (O)? Searches ABI/Inform | Advanced Search SS1 &quot;oil prices&quot; AND speculat* OR regulat* SS2 ti &quot;oil prices&quot; AND ti speculat*
    • 43.  
    • 44.  
    • 45. PICO Question | Aviation Background | 5 Ws How can airplane landings be made safer? Foreground | PICO In airplane landings (P) how does using imaging sensors (I) compared to lights (C) affect safety (O)
    • 46. PICO Question | Aviation Foreground | PICO In airplane landings (P) how does using imaging sensors (I) compared to lights (C) affect safety (O) Searches in ABI Inform Landings AND (sensors or lights) Ti (landings) AND ti (sensors or lights)
    • 47.  
    • 48.  
    • 49. PICO Question | Aviation Questions?
    • 50. LibGuide http://libguides.asu.edu/PICO Ellen Welty Sheila Hofstetter [email_address] [email_address]

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