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Methamphetamine

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Presentation about methamphetamine from a public health perspective.

Presentation about methamphetamine from a public health perspective.

Published in: Health & Medicine

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  • 1. METHAMPHETAMINE (METHYLAMPHETAMINE ) AN INTRODUCTION INTO TOXINS AND THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC FdSc Health and Society Level 4 IM4010 PUBLIC HEALTH AND DISEASE PRESENTATION
  • 2. METHAMPHETAMINE : •Man-made, powerful and highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system •meth, chalk, ice, and crystal first synthesized in 1893 by Nagayoshi NagaI, but went unnoticed until it became the alternative to ephedrine, a drug commonly used to treat asthma • •used in Japan, Britain, Germany and the US during the WWII to enable soldiers to stay awake, alert and compulsively focussed. (Drugscope, 2007).
  • 3. In the US, approved by FDA in treating: Distributed to German troops during WW II to •ADHD create super soldier machines. The "power •exogenous obesity drugs" reduced fatigue and empathy, and •narcolepsy • treatment-resistant depression increased aggression. (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2013) Pervitin (photo from www.timeprints.de) Desoxyn ( photo from U.S. FDA website)
  • 4. Crystal/rock form Pill and powder form PHOTOS FROM WWW.JUSTICE.GOV METHAMPHETAMINE CAN BE INJECTED, SMOKED, SWALLOWED OR SNORTED.
  • 5. WHAT IS METH MADE FROM? ACETONE – found in nail polish remover LITHIUM – used in batteries (photo from www.justice.gov) TOLUENE – used in brake fluid HYDROCHLORIC ACID – used to make plastic PSEUDOEPHEDRINE – found in cold medicines RED PHOSPHORUS – found in matchboxes SODIUM HYDROXIDE – lye, used to dispose of road kill and more…..
  • 6. IS METHAMPHETAMINE A PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN? •Methamphetamine •Longer-lasting •Drug is stronger than amphetamine. and more harmful effects on the central nervous system. with high potential for widespread abuse (NIH, 2013). stimulants (ATS) such as "ecstasy" and methamphetamine now rank as the world's second most widely abused drug type after cannabis. •Amphetamine-type •Expansion of such illegal trade pose an increasing threat to health worldwide profits linked to the trade, fuel a rise in organized crime (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2011). •High each pound of meth produced, 5-6 pounds of highly toxic waste is generated (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2008). •For rising number of cases of methamphetamine-induced psychosis is presenting a challenge to medical practitioners from a diagnosis and treatment perspective •The
  • 7. IS METHAMPHETAMINE A PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN? • There is no typical methamphetamine user. The drug is used by people of different ages and races, in all parts of the world, and for different reasons • Meth has seen rapid growth in popularity because it is relatively easy to make and carries a low street price • Persons in and around meth laboratories can be acutely exposed to hazardous substances used in meth production. Some of the ingredients used to make methamphetamine are highly explosive • Methamphetamine use increases risk of acquiring HIV and other STDs
  • 8. THE EFFECT ON HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Short-term effects may include: Long-term effects may include:   Increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature  Liver, kidney and lung damage  Destruction of tissues in nose if sniffed  Breathing problems if smoked  Infectious diseases and abscesses if injected  Malnutrition, weight loss  Severe tooth decay  Disorientation, apathy, confused exhaustion  Strong psychological dependence  Psychosis  Depression  Damage to the brain similar to Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and epilepsy Loss of appetite  Permanent damage to blood vessels of heart and brain, high blood pressure leading to heart attacks, strokes and death  Dilation of pupils  Disturbed sleep patterns  Nausea  Bizarre, erratic, sometimes violent behaviour  Hallucinations and irritability  Panic and psychosis  Convulsions, seizures and death from high doses
  • 9. HOW METH CAN DAMAGE YOUR MOUTH ? (METH MOUTH) (PHOTO FROM WWW.JUSTICE.GOV) • BAD DIET • LACK OF SALIVA • DECREASED BLOOD FLOW • TOOTH GRINDING AND CLENCHING • BAD HYGIENE
  • 10. FORMICATION (CRANK BUGS) Meth users are certain than there are insects crawling under their skin. Formication, essentially a tactile hallucination, is an abnormal skin sensation similar to that of insects crawling over or within the skin, (From the Latin ‘formicare’ meaning to creep like an ant) (METH PROJECT, 2005). (Photo from www.justice.gov)
  • 11. Photo from http://narcotic.net
  • 12. BEFORE AND AFTER (PHOTOS FROM WWW.DRUGFREEWORLD.ORG)
  • 13. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRENDS The UNODC estimated the worldwide production of amphetamine-type stimulants, which includes methamphetamine, at nearly 500 metric tons a year, with 24.7 million abusers (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2011).
  • 14. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TREND - WORLDWIDE
  • 15. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TREND - WORLDWIDE • There is also growing evidence to suggest that criminal organizations involved in smuggling ATS, particularly methamphetamine, exploit West Africa in a similar way to cocaine traffickers. Seizures of methamphetamine from West Africa started to increase in 2008; the substance was being smuggled into East Asian countries, predominantly Japan and the Republic of Korea (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime , 2012)
  • 16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TREND WORLDWIDE North Korea has been mentioned as a country with high prevalence of methamphetamine use. Within the secretive state, there appears to be an epidemic of crystal meth so widespread that, in some communities, more than 50 per cent of people are users, according the North Korea Review journal.(Photo from www.standardmedia.co.ke)
  • 17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TREND – USA/ EUROPE   In UK methamphetamine is not so popular, but around 15.6% of adults had ever taken a Class A drug in their lifetime (five million people!) (GOV.UK, 2012)  Methamphetamine is not common on the Isle of Man In the United States, the percentage States of drug treatment admissions due to methamphetamine and amphetamine abuse tripled from 3% in 1996 to 9% in 2006.The number of persons with substance dependence or abuse was stable between 2002 ( 22 mil)and 2010(22.1 mil).  In Europe, the highest prevalence of methamphetamine is in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, Republic although many other countries sporadically report its availability, use or seizure. The Czech Republic, Sweden, Finland, Slovakia and Latvia reported amphetamines and methamphetamine as accounting for between 20% and 60% of those seeking drug abuse treatments (EMCDDA/ Europol, 2009).
  • 18. ORGANISATIONS/AGENCIES
  • 19. HOW DOES IT AFFECT SOCIETY?
  • 20. FAMOUS PEOPLE AND METHAMPHETAMINE : • Robert Downey Jr (arrested for possession of cocaine and meth in 2000) • Marilyn Monroe (treated by celebrity doctor Max "Dr. Feelgood" Jacobson' with ‘formula’ made of animal blood and methamphetamines) • Adolf Hitler (From 1942 received daily injections of methamphetamine from his personal physician, Dr Theodor Morell) • J F Kennedy ( Dr Feelgood’s shots of formula supposedly helped cure his migraines, chronic back pain, and lack of stamina) • Amy Winehouse ( known for her meth, heroine, and cocaine binges) • Britney Spears (Lufti, Spears' "life coach," says meth is to blame for the singer's 2007 meltdown )
  • 21. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Drugscope. (2007, January). Drug Information Methamphetamine. Retrieved from Drugscope: http://www.drugscope.org.uk/resources/drugsearch/drugsearchpages/methamphetamine  EMCDDA/ Europol. (2009). Methamphetamine - A European Union perspective in the global context . Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009.  GOV.UK. (2012, 09 27). National Statistics. Retrieved from GOV.UK: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/drug-misusedeclared-findings-from-the-2011-to-2012-crime-survey-for-england-and-wales-csew-second-edition  METH PROJECT. (2005). GET ANSWERS. Retrieved from METHPROJECT.ORG: http://www.methproject.org/  Narconon.org. (n.d.). Drug Information -Methamphetamine FAQ. Retrieved 01 06, 2014, from Narconon International: http://www.narconon.org/drug-information/FAQ-methamphetamine.html  NIH. (2013, September). Methamphetamine : Abuse and Addiction. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/methamphetamine-abuse-addiction/what-methamphetamine  U.S. Department of Justice. (n.d.). Multi-Media Library-Methamphetamine. Retrieved 01 06, 2014, from US DEA: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pr/multimedia-library/image-gallery/images_methamphetamine.shtml  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2008, 09 26). Waste Identification. Retrieved from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency : http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/wastetypes/wasteid/downloads/rtc-meth.pdf  U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2013, October). FDA DRUGS. Retrieved from FDA.gov: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm088582.pdf  United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime . (2012). World Drug Report . Vienna: United Nations .  United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2011). 2011 Global ATS Assessment. Vienna: United Nations Publication .