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0135108985 pp1a

0135108985 pp1a






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    0135108985 pp1a 0135108985 pp1a Presentation Transcript

    • After studying this unit
      • You will be able to:
        • Discuss the development of the modern food service industry
        • Name the key historical figures responsible for developing food service professionalism
        • Explain the organization of the classic and modern kitchen brigades
        • Appreciate the role of the professional chef in modern food service operations
        • Understand the attributes a student chef needs to become a professional
    • Culinary Timeline Past to the Present
      • In the 1500s, culinary guilds were developed to dictate and monopolize the preparation of certain food items.
      • Each guild governed the production of a set of specific types of food.
    • Culinary Guilds
      • The Guild
        • Rôtisseurs
        • Pâtissiers
        • Tamisiers
        • Vinaigriers
        • Traiteurs
        • Porte-chapes
      • The Product
        • Main cuts of meat
        • Poultry, pies, tarts
        • Breads
        • Sauces and stews
        • Ragouts
        • Caterers
    • The First Restaurant - 1765
      • Monsieur Boulanger opened the first free-standing restaurant in Paris.
      • Boulanger’s contribution to the food service industry was to serve a variety of foods prepared on premises to customers whose primary interest was dining.
    • The French Revolution 1789-1799
      • The social structure in France changed.
      • The aristocracy, guilds and their monopolies were abolished.
      • A nascent restaurant industry emerged.
      • Chefs could cater to the growing middle class.
    • Haute Cuisine Early 19 th Century
      • Antonin Carême (1783-1833)
      • “ The Cook of Kings and the King of Cooks”
      • His stated goal - to achieve “lightness, grace, order and perspicuity” in the preparation and presentation of food.
        • As a saucier he standardized the use of roux and devised a system to classify sauces
        • As a garde-manger he popularized cold cuisine
        • As a culinary professional he designed kitchen tools, equipment and uniforms
        • As an author he wrote and illustrated important texts on culinary arts
    • Marie-Antonin Carême
    • Cuisine Classique Late 19 th Century
      • Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
      • “ Emperor of the World’s Kitchens”
      • Defined French cuisine and dining during La Belle Époque
      • Simplified food preparation and dining
      • Classified the five families of sauces
      • He wrote:
        • Le Livre des menus – a guide to planning meals
        • Ma cuisine – a survey of cuisine bourgeoisie (middle class cuisine)
        • Le Guide Culinaire – still in use today, a collection of classic cuisine recipes and garnishes
    • Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
    • Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899)
      • The first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico’s in New York City
      • Published: The Epicurean, which contains 3500 recipes
    • 20 th Century – Lighter Foods, Simplification of Techniques
      • Fernand Point (1897-1955)
      • Refined and modernized classic cuisine and laid the groundwork for nouvelle cuisine
      • Inspired and trained influential chefs: Paul Bocuse, Jean and Pierre Troisgros and Alain Chapel, among others
      • Gaston Lenôtre (1920-)
      • Father of modern French pastry
      • Began a culinary school, L’École Lenôtre
      • Developed innovations in Bavarians, charlottes and mousses
      • Mastered techniques of freezing baked products
    • American Culinary Revolution 1960’s - present
      • Broad changes are influencing cuisine today.
      • Consumers and chefs seek authentic ethnic cuisines inspired by the arrival of diverse immigrant groups, particularly those from Asian and Latin American countries
    • Alice Waters (1944 -
      • Launched New American cuisine
      • Opened Chez Panisse in Berkeley, California in 1971.
      • Her goal is to serve fresh, seasonal and locally grown produce in simple preparations that preserved and emphasized the foods’ natural flavors.
    • Fusion Cuisine
      • American cuisine has always been influenced by cuisines from other countries. This is most evident in fusion cuisine, which began in the mid-1980s.
      • In fusion cuisine, ingredients or preparation methods associated with one ethnic or regional cuisine are combined with those of another.
    • Farm-To-Table-Movement
      • Although chefs look to incorporate global flavors and ingredients, they also seek locally-grown foods.
        • Promotes agriculture
        • Focus is on foods served in season
        • Protects heirloom varieties
    • Influences on Modern Food Service Operations
      • New technologies
        • Stoves replace fireplace cooking
        • Food storage, canning and freezing
        • Transportation, train then air shipping
        • The study of chemistry and physics of food preparation resulted in a contemporary culinary movement often referred to as molecular gastronomy.
    • Molecular Gastronomy
      • Ferran Adrìa (1962 –
      • “ The Salvador Dali of the kitchen”
      • Spanish chef trained in French nouvelle cuisine
      • Committed to “reinventing cuisine” as we know it
      • Credited with advancing the culinary science movement
      • His food engages all senses, using fresh ingredients
      • Small tasting plates of as many as 35 courses
      • Using equipment and ingredients more common in food manufacturing
    • Ferran Adrìa – (1962-
    • Influences on Modern Food Service Operations
      • New foods
        • Hybridization
        • Genetic engineering
      • New concerns
        • Health issues
        • Public safety
      • New consumers
        • The global community
    • The Kitchen Brigade
      • Back-of-the-House
        • A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks
        • Escoffier is credited with developing this hierarchical system
          • Modern
          • Classic
    • The Modern Kitchen Brigade
      • Executive chef
      • Sous-chef
      • Area chefs
      • Line cook
      • Pastry chef
      • Apprentice
      • Short-order cook
    • The Classic Kitchen Brigade
      • Chef de cuisine
      • Sous-chef/aboyeur
      • Chefs de partie
      • Saucier Poissonier
      • Grillardin Friturier
      • Rôtisseur Potager
      • Légumier Entremetier
      • Garde-Manger Tournant
      • Pâtissier Commis
    • The Dining Room
      • Front-of-the-House
        • American French
        • Dining room manager Maître d'hôtel
        • Wine steward Sommelier
        • Headwaiter Chef de salle
        • Captains Chefs d’étage
        • Front waiters Chefs de rang
        • Back waiters Commis de rang
    • The Professional Chef What does it take?
      • Knowledge
        • Lifelong learning
      • Skill
        • Develops with Experience
      • Taste
      • Judgment
      • Dedication
      • Pride