After studying this unit
- Discuss the development of the modern food service industry
- Name the key historical figures responsible for developing food service professionalism
- Explain the organization of the classic and modern kitchen brigades
- Appreciate the role of the professional chef in modern food service operations
- Understand the attributes a student chef needs to become a professional
Culinary Timeline Past to the Present
- In the 1500s, culinary guilds were developed to dictate and monopolize the preparation of certain food items.
- Each guild governed the production of a set of specific types of food.
The First Restaurant - 1765
- Monsieur Boulanger opened the first free-standing restaurant in Paris.
- Boulanger’s contribution to the food service industry was to serve a variety of foods prepared on premises to customers whose primary interest was dining.
The French Revolution 1789-1799
- The social structure in France changed.
- The aristocracy, guilds and their monopolies were abolished.
- A nascent restaurant industry emerged.
- Chefs could cater to the growing middle class.
Haute Cuisine Early 19 th Century
- Antonin Carême (1783-1833)
- “ The Cook of Kings and the King of Cooks”
- His stated goal - to achieve “lightness, grace, order and perspicuity” in the preparation and presentation of food.
- As a saucier he standardized the use of roux and devised a system to classify sauces
- As a garde-manger he popularized cold cuisine
- As a culinary professional he designed kitchen tools, equipment and uniforms
- As an author he wrote and illustrated important texts on culinary arts
Cuisine Classique Late 19 th Century
- Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
- “ Emperor of the World’s Kitchens”
- Defined French cuisine and dining during La Belle Époque
- Simplified food preparation and dining
- Classified the five families of sauces
- Le Livre des menus – a guide to planning meals
- Ma cuisine – a survey of cuisine bourgeoisie (middle class cuisine)
- Le Guide Culinaire – still in use today, a collection of classic cuisine recipes and garnishes
Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899)
- The first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico’s in New York City
- Published: The Epicurean, which contains 3500 recipes
20 th Century – Lighter Foods, Simplification of Techniques
- Fernand Point (1897-1955)
- Refined and modernized classic cuisine and laid the groundwork for nouvelle cuisine
- Inspired and trained influential chefs: Paul Bocuse, Jean and Pierre Troisgros and Alain Chapel, among others
- Father of modern French pastry
- Began a culinary school, L’École Lenôtre
- Developed innovations in Bavarians, charlottes and mousses
- Mastered techniques of freezing baked products
American Culinary Revolution 1960’s - present
- Broad changes are influencing cuisine today.
- Consumers and chefs seek authentic ethnic cuisines inspired by the arrival of diverse immigrant groups, particularly those from Asian and Latin American countries
Alice Waters (1944 -
- Launched New American cuisine
- Opened Chez Panisse in Berkeley, California in 1971.
- Her goal is to serve fresh, seasonal and locally grown produce in simple preparations that preserved and emphasized the foods’ natural flavors.
- American cuisine has always been influenced by cuisines from other countries. This is most evident in fusion cuisine, which began in the mid-1980s.
- In fusion cuisine, ingredients or preparation methods associated with one ethnic or regional cuisine are combined with those of another.
- Although chefs look to incorporate global flavors and ingredients, they also seek locally-grown foods.
- Focus is on foods served in season
- Protects heirloom varieties
Influences on Modern Food Service Operations
- Stoves replace fireplace cooking
- Food storage, canning and freezing
- Transportation, train then air shipping
- The study of chemistry and physics of food preparation resulted in a contemporary culinary movement often referred to as molecular gastronomy.
- “ The Salvador Dali of the kitchen”
- Spanish chef trained in French nouvelle cuisine
- Committed to “reinventing cuisine” as we know it
- Credited with advancing the culinary science movement
- His food engages all senses, using fresh ingredients
- Small tasting plates of as many as 35 courses
- Using equipment and ingredients more common in food manufacturing
Ferran Adrìa – (1962-
Influences on Modern Food Service Operations
The Kitchen Brigade
- A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks
- Escoffier is credited with developing this hierarchical system
The Modern Kitchen Brigade
The Classic Kitchen Brigade
The Dining Room
- Dining room manager Maître d'hôtel
- Front waiters Chefs de rang
- Back waiters Commis de rang
The Professional Chef What does it take?