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  • 1.  
  • 2. After studying this unit
    • You will be able to:
      • Discuss the development of the modern food service industry
      • Name the key historical figures responsible for developing food service professionalism
      • Explain the organization of the classic and modern kitchen brigades
      • Appreciate the role of the professional chef in modern food service operations
      • Understand the attributes a student chef needs to become a professional
  • 3. Culinary Timeline Past to the Present
    • In the 1500s, culinary guilds were developed to dictate and monopolize the preparation of certain food items.
    • Each guild governed the production of a set of specific types of food.
  • 4. Culinary Guilds
    • The Guild
      • Rôtisseurs
      • Pâtissiers
      • Tamisiers
      • Vinaigriers
      • Traiteurs
      • Porte-chapes
    • The Product
      • Main cuts of meat
      • Poultry, pies, tarts
      • Breads
      • Sauces and stews
      • Ragouts
      • Caterers
  • 5. The First Restaurant - 1765
    • Monsieur Boulanger opened the first free-standing restaurant in Paris.
    • Boulanger’s contribution to the food service industry was to serve a variety of foods prepared on premises to customers whose primary interest was dining.
  • 6. The French Revolution 1789-1799
    • The social structure in France changed.
    • The aristocracy, guilds and their monopolies were abolished.
    • A nascent restaurant industry emerged.
    • Chefs could cater to the growing middle class.
  • 7. Haute Cuisine Early 19 th Century
    • Antonin Carême (1783-1833)
    • “ The Cook of Kings and the King of Cooks”
    • His stated goal - to achieve “lightness, grace, order and perspicuity” in the preparation and presentation of food.
      • As a saucier he standardized the use of roux and devised a system to classify sauces
      • As a garde-manger he popularized cold cuisine
      • As a culinary professional he designed kitchen tools, equipment and uniforms
      • As an author he wrote and illustrated important texts on culinary arts
  • 8. Marie-Antonin Carême
  • 9. Cuisine Classique Late 19 th Century
    • Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
    • “ Emperor of the World’s Kitchens”
    • Defined French cuisine and dining during La Belle Époque
    • Simplified food preparation and dining
    • Classified the five families of sauces
    • He wrote:
      • Le Livre des menus – a guide to planning meals
      • Ma cuisine – a survey of cuisine bourgeoisie (middle class cuisine)
      • Le Guide Culinaire – still in use today, a collection of classic cuisine recipes and garnishes
  • 10. Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
  • 11. Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899)
    • The first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico’s in New York City
    • Published: The Epicurean, which contains 3500 recipes
  • 12. 20 th Century – Lighter Foods, Simplification of Techniques
    • Fernand Point (1897-1955)
    • Refined and modernized classic cuisine and laid the groundwork for nouvelle cuisine
    • Inspired and trained influential chefs: Paul Bocuse, Jean and Pierre Troisgros and Alain Chapel, among others
    • Gaston Lenôtre (1920-)
    • Father of modern French pastry
    • Began a culinary school, L’École Lenôtre
    • Developed innovations in Bavarians, charlottes and mousses
    • Mastered techniques of freezing baked products
  • 13. American Culinary Revolution 1960’s - present
    • Broad changes are influencing cuisine today.
    • Consumers and chefs seek authentic ethnic cuisines inspired by the arrival of diverse immigrant groups, particularly those from Asian and Latin American countries
  • 14. Alice Waters (1944 -
    • Launched New American cuisine
    • Opened Chez Panisse in Berkeley, California in 1971.
    • Her goal is to serve fresh, seasonal and locally grown produce in simple preparations that preserved and emphasized the foods’ natural flavors.
  • 15. Fusion Cuisine
    • American cuisine has always been influenced by cuisines from other countries. This is most evident in fusion cuisine, which began in the mid-1980s.
    • In fusion cuisine, ingredients or preparation methods associated with one ethnic or regional cuisine are combined with those of another.
  • 16. Farm-To-Table-Movement
    • Although chefs look to incorporate global flavors and ingredients, they also seek locally-grown foods.
      • Promotes agriculture
      • Focus is on foods served in season
      • Protects heirloom varieties
  • 17. Influences on Modern Food Service Operations
    • New technologies
      • Stoves replace fireplace cooking
      • Food storage, canning and freezing
      • Transportation, train then air shipping
      • The study of chemistry and physics of food preparation resulted in a contemporary culinary movement often referred to as molecular gastronomy.
  • 18. Molecular Gastronomy
    • Ferran Adrìa (1962 –
    • “ The Salvador Dali of the kitchen”
    • Spanish chef trained in French nouvelle cuisine
    • Committed to “reinventing cuisine” as we know it
    • Credited with advancing the culinary science movement
    • His food engages all senses, using fresh ingredients
    • Small tasting plates of as many as 35 courses
    • Using equipment and ingredients more common in food manufacturing
  • 19. Ferran Adrìa – (1962-
  • 20. Influences on Modern Food Service Operations
    • New foods
      • Hybridization
      • Genetic engineering
    • New concerns
      • Health issues
      • Public safety
    • New consumers
      • The global community
  • 21. The Kitchen Brigade
    • Back-of-the-House
      • A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks
      • Escoffier is credited with developing this hierarchical system
        • Modern
        • Classic
  • 22. The Modern Kitchen Brigade
    • Executive chef
    • Sous-chef
    • Area chefs
    • Line cook
    • Pastry chef
    • Apprentice
    • Short-order cook
  • 23. The Classic Kitchen Brigade
    • Chef de cuisine
    • Sous-chef/aboyeur
    • Chefs de partie
    • Saucier Poissonier
    • Grillardin Friturier
    • Rôtisseur Potager
    • Légumier Entremetier
    • Garde-Manger Tournant
    • Pâtissier Commis
  • 24. The Dining Room
    • Front-of-the-House
      • American French
      • Dining room manager Maître d'hôtel
      • Wine steward Sommelier
      • Headwaiter Chef de salle
      • Captains Chefs d’étage
      • Front waiters Chefs de rang
      • Back waiters Commis de rang
  • 25. The Professional Chef What does it take?
    • Knowledge
      • Lifelong learning
    • Skill
      • Develops with Experience
    • Taste
    • Judgment
    • Dedication
    • Pride