• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Scientific method
 

Scientific method

on

  • 601 views

Molded together from two powerpoints on the internet:

Molded together from two powerpoints on the internet:
www.biologyjunction.com/Scientific%20Method.ppt
and
newton.uor.edu/facultyfolder/tyler_nordgren/.../FYS_SciMethod.ppt

Statistics

Views

Total Views
601
Views on SlideShare
601
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
17
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Apple Keynote

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n

Scientific method Scientific method Presentation Transcript

  • Scientific Method
  • Steps in the Scientific Method
  • Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation
  • Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis
  • Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis  Experiment/Test
  • Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis  Experiment/Test  Data Collection
  • Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis  Experiment/Test  Data Collection  Conclusion
  • Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis  Experiment/Test  Data Collection  Conclusion  Retest
  • The Scientific Method
  • The Scientific Method Observe an event.
  • The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction.
  • The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction.
  • The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction. Observe the result.
  • The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction. Observe the result. Revise the hypothesis.
  • The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction. Observe the result. Revise the hypothesis. Repeat as needed.
  • The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction. Observe the result. Revise the hypothesis. Repeat as needed. A successful hypothesis becomes a Scientific Theory.
  • The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. model Test the prediction. Observe the result. Revise the hypothesis. test Repeat as needed. A successful hypothesis becomes a Scientific Theory.
  • Medical ScienceScientific Method High CholesterolObservation Patient has high cholesterolHypothesis Certain chemicals may dissolve(prediction) cholesterol deposits.Test Give 100 patients these chemicals, give 100 patients placebo.Observe result Same number lower their cholesterol as placebo patients.Revise hypothesis? Try different combo of chemicals.New test? Re-run medical test. Observe results.Scientific Theory Lipitor reduces cholesterol. 4
  • Everyday Science Scientific Method Car RepairObservation Engine won’t turn over.Hypothesis (prediction) Predict battery is dead.Test Replace battery.Observe result Engine now turns over.Revise hypothesis? Not needed.New test? Not needed.Scientific Theory Cars won’t work without a fully charged battery. 5
  • Everyday Science Scientific Method Making Spaghetti SauceObservation Spaghetti sauce should be red.Hypothesis (prediction) Try a tomato sauce.Test Heat pot of tomato sauce.Observe result Taste the sauce - bland.Revise hypothesis? Use tomato sauce and garlic!New test? Add garlic, taste - not so bland.Scientific Theory The Final Recipe. 6
  • Observations Gathered through your senses A scientist notices something in their natural world
  • Observations An example of an observation might be noticing that many salamanders near a pond have curved, not straight, tails
  • Hypothesis
  • Hypothesis
  • Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem.
  • Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem. Must be testable
  • Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem. Must be testable Sometimes written as If…Then… statements
  • Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem. Must be testable Sometimes written as If…Then… statements Predicts an outcome
  • Hypothesis An example of a hypothesis might be that the salamanders have curved tails due to a pollutant in the moist soil where they live.
  • Experiment A procedure to test the hypothesis.
  • Experiment Variable –factor in the experimentthat is being tested
  • Experiment A good or “valid” experimentwill only have ONE variable!
  • Controls and Variables
  • Scientific Experiments Follow Rules An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens.
  • The Control Variable
  • The Control Variable The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome.
  • The Control Variable The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome. Those factors are called control variables.
  • What is the Purpose of a Control?
  • What is the Purpose of a Control?  Controls are NOT being tested
  • What is the Purpose of a Control?  Controls are NOT being tested  Controls are used for COMPARISON
  • Other Variables
  • Other Variables The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable.
  • Other Variables The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable. The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable.
  • Example of Controls & Variables
  • Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school.
  • Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one.
  • Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself.
  • What are the Variables in Your Experiment?
  • What are the Variables in Your Experiment?  Varying the route is the independent variable
  • What are the Variables in Your Experiment?  Varying the route is the independent variable  The time it takes is the dependent variable
  • What are the Variables in Your Experiment?  Varying the route is the independent variable  The time it takes is the dependent variable  Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable.
  • One more thing… it is bestto make several trials witheach independent variable.
  • Valid Experiments
  • Remember: To be a Valid Experiment: Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groups There should be only one variable
  • Data
  • Data Results of the experiment
  • Data Results of the experiment May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative
  • Data
  • Data Must be organized
  • Data Must be organized Can be organized into charts, tables, or graphs
  • Conclusion The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment
  • RetestIn order to verify the results,experiments must be retested.
  • Review
  • Solving a Problem
  • Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem
  • Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem
  • Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)
  • Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis
  • Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis5) Collect Data
  • Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis5) Collect Data6) Form a Conclusion
  • Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis5) Collect Data6) Form a Conclusion7) Retest