Scientific Method
Steps in the Scientific        Method
Steps in the Scientific        Method               Observation
Steps in the Scientific        Method               Observation               Hypothesis
Steps in the Scientific        Method               Observation               Hypothesis               Experiment/Test
Steps in the Scientific        Method               Observation               Hypothesis               Experiment/Test ...
Steps in the Scientific        Method               Observation               Hypothesis               Experiment/Test ...
Steps in the Scientific        Method               Observation               Hypothesis               Experiment/Test ...
The Scientific Method
The Scientific Method   Observe an event.
The Scientific Method   Observe an event.   Develop a model (or hypothesis) which    makes a prediction.
The Scientific Method   Observe an event.   Develop a model (or hypothesis) which    makes a prediction.   Test the pre...
The Scientific Method   Observe an event.   Develop a model (or hypothesis) which    makes a prediction.   Test the pre...
The Scientific Method   Observe an event.   Develop a model (or hypothesis) which    makes a prediction.   Test the pre...
The Scientific Method   Observe an event.   Develop a model (or hypothesis) which    makes a prediction.   Test the pre...
The Scientific Method   Observe an event.   Develop a model (or hypothesis) which    makes a prediction.   Test the pre...
The Scientific Method   Observe an event.   Develop a model (or hypothesis) which    makes a prediction.                ...
Medical ScienceScientific Method            High CholesterolObservation         Patient has high cholesterolHypothesis     ...
Everyday Science       Scientific Method           Car RepairObservation               Engine won’t turn over.Hypothesis (p...
Everyday Science   Scientific Method         Making Spaghetti SauceObservation             Spaghetti sauce should be red.Hy...
Observations     Gathered    through your       senses    A scientist       notices    something in    their natural    ...
Observations   An example of an    observation might     be noticing that    many salamanders    near a pond have       c...
Hypothesis
Hypothesis
Hypothesis   A suggested    solution to the    problem.
Hypothesis   A suggested    solution to the    problem.   Must be testable
Hypothesis   A suggested    solution to the    problem.   Must be testable   Sometimes written    as If…Then…    statem...
Hypothesis   A suggested    solution to the    problem.   Must be testable   Sometimes written    as If…Then…    statem...
Hypothesis   An example of a    hypothesis might    be that the    salamanders have    curved tails due to    a pollutant...
Experiment   A procedure    to test the    hypothesis.
Experiment Variable –factor in the experimentthat is being   tested
Experiment A good or    “valid” experimentwill only have     ONE   variable!
Controls and Variables
Scientific Experiments Follow            Rules   An    experimenter    changes one    factor and    observes or    measur...
The Control Variable
The Control Variable   The experimenter makes a    special effort to keep other    factors constant so that they    will ...
The Control Variable   The experimenter makes a    special effort to keep other    factors constant so that they    will ...
What is the Purpose of a        Control?
What is the Purpose of a        Control?    Controls are NOT being     tested
What is the Purpose of a        Control?    Controls are NOT being     tested    Controls are used for     COMPARISON
Other Variables
Other Variables   The factor that is changed is    known as the independent    variable.
Other Variables   The factor that is changed is    known as the independent    variable.   The factor that is measured o...
Example of Controls &     Variables
Example of Controls &                Variables   For example, suppose you want to figure out    the fastest route to walk...
Example of Controls &                Variables   For example, suppose you want to figure out    the fastest route to walk...
Example of Controls &                 Variables   For example, suppose you want to figure out    the fastest route to wal...
What are the Variables in   Your Experiment?
What are the Variables in   Your Experiment?    Varying the route is the     independent variable
What are the Variables in   Your Experiment?    Varying the route is the     independent variable    The time it takes i...
What are the Variables in   Your Experiment?    Varying the route is the     independent variable    The time it takes i...
One more thing… it is bestto make several trials witheach independent variable.
Valid Experiments
Remember: To be a Valid         Experiment:   Two groups are required ---    the control & experimental    groups   Ther...
Data
Data   Results of the    experiment
Data   Results of the    experiment   May be    quantitative    (numbers) or    qualitative
Data
Data   Must be    organized
Data   Must be    organized   Can be    organized into    charts,    tables, or    graphs
Conclusion   The answer to    the hypothesis    based on the    data obtained    from the    experiment
RetestIn order to verify the   results,experiments   must be  retested.
Review
Solving a Problem
Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem
Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the   problem
Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the   problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the    problem (i...
Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the   problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the    problem (i...
Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the   problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the    problem (i...
Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the   problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the    problem (i...
Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the   problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the    problem (i...
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Scientific method

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Molded together from two powerpoints on the internet:
www.biologyjunction.com/Scientific%20Method.ppt
and
newton.uor.edu/facultyfolder/tyler_nordgren/.../FYS_SciMethod.ppt

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  • Scientific method

    1. 1. Scientific Method
    2. 2. Steps in the Scientific Method
    3. 3. Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation
    4. 4. Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis
    5. 5. Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis  Experiment/Test
    6. 6. Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis  Experiment/Test  Data Collection
    7. 7. Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis  Experiment/Test  Data Collection  Conclusion
    8. 8. Steps in the Scientific Method  Observation  Hypothesis  Experiment/Test  Data Collection  Conclusion  Retest
    9. 9. The Scientific Method
    10. 10. The Scientific Method Observe an event.
    11. 11. The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction.
    12. 12. The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction.
    13. 13. The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction. Observe the result.
    14. 14. The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction. Observe the result. Revise the hypothesis.
    15. 15. The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction. Observe the result. Revise the hypothesis. Repeat as needed.
    16. 16. The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. Test the prediction. Observe the result. Revise the hypothesis. Repeat as needed. A successful hypothesis becomes a Scientific Theory.
    17. 17. The Scientific Method Observe an event. Develop a model (or hypothesis) which makes a prediction. model Test the prediction. Observe the result. Revise the hypothesis. test Repeat as needed. A successful hypothesis becomes a Scientific Theory.
    18. 18. Medical ScienceScientific Method High CholesterolObservation Patient has high cholesterolHypothesis Certain chemicals may dissolve(prediction) cholesterol deposits.Test Give 100 patients these chemicals, give 100 patients placebo.Observe result Same number lower their cholesterol as placebo patients.Revise hypothesis? Try different combo of chemicals.New test? Re-run medical test. Observe results.Scientific Theory Lipitor reduces cholesterol. 4
    19. 19. Everyday Science Scientific Method Car RepairObservation Engine won’t turn over.Hypothesis (prediction) Predict battery is dead.Test Replace battery.Observe result Engine now turns over.Revise hypothesis? Not needed.New test? Not needed.Scientific Theory Cars won’t work without a fully charged battery. 5
    20. 20. Everyday Science Scientific Method Making Spaghetti SauceObservation Spaghetti sauce should be red.Hypothesis (prediction) Try a tomato sauce.Test Heat pot of tomato sauce.Observe result Taste the sauce - bland.Revise hypothesis? Use tomato sauce and garlic!New test? Add garlic, taste - not so bland.Scientific Theory The Final Recipe. 6
    21. 21. Observations Gathered through your senses A scientist notices something in their natural world
    22. 22. Observations An example of an observation might be noticing that many salamanders near a pond have curved, not straight, tails
    23. 23. Hypothesis
    24. 24. Hypothesis
    25. 25. Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem.
    26. 26. Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem. Must be testable
    27. 27. Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem. Must be testable Sometimes written as If…Then… statements
    28. 28. Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem. Must be testable Sometimes written as If…Then… statements Predicts an outcome
    29. 29. Hypothesis An example of a hypothesis might be that the salamanders have curved tails due to a pollutant in the moist soil where they live.
    30. 30. Experiment A procedure to test the hypothesis.
    31. 31. Experiment Variable –factor in the experimentthat is being tested
    32. 32. Experiment A good or “valid” experimentwill only have ONE variable!
    33. 33. Controls and Variables
    34. 34. Scientific Experiments Follow Rules An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens.
    35. 35. The Control Variable
    36. 36. The Control Variable The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome.
    37. 37. The Control Variable The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome. Those factors are called control variables.
    38. 38. What is the Purpose of a Control?
    39. 39. What is the Purpose of a Control?  Controls are NOT being tested
    40. 40. What is the Purpose of a Control?  Controls are NOT being tested  Controls are used for COMPARISON
    41. 41. Other Variables
    42. 42. Other Variables The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable.
    43. 43. Other Variables The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable. The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable.
    44. 44. Example of Controls & Variables
    45. 45. Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school.
    46. 46. Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one.
    47. 47. Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself.
    48. 48. What are the Variables in Your Experiment?
    49. 49. What are the Variables in Your Experiment?  Varying the route is the independent variable
    50. 50. What are the Variables in Your Experiment?  Varying the route is the independent variable  The time it takes is the dependent variable
    51. 51. What are the Variables in Your Experiment?  Varying the route is the independent variable  The time it takes is the dependent variable  Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable.
    52. 52. One more thing… it is bestto make several trials witheach independent variable.
    53. 53. Valid Experiments
    54. 54. Remember: To be a Valid Experiment: Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groups There should be only one variable
    55. 55. Data
    56. 56. Data Results of the experiment
    57. 57. Data Results of the experiment May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative
    58. 58. Data
    59. 59. Data Must be organized
    60. 60. Data Must be organized Can be organized into charts, tables, or graphs
    61. 61. Conclusion The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment
    62. 62. RetestIn order to verify the results,experiments must be retested.
    63. 63. Review
    64. 64. Solving a Problem
    65. 65. Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem
    66. 66. Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem
    67. 67. Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)
    68. 68. Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis
    69. 69. Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis5) Collect Data
    70. 70. Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis5) Collect Data6) Form a Conclusion
    71. 71. Solving a Problem1)Identify a Problem2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis5) Collect Data6) Form a Conclusion7) Retest
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