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Plants water&soil
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Plants water&soil

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  • 1. Plants & Water Plants contain large amounts of water. Most herbaceous parts of plants are over 80% water. 1
  • 2. Plants use water for several purposesPhotosynthesis: Foreach molecule ofglucose made by plants,6 or more molecules ofwater must be brokenapart. 2
  • 3. Plants use water for several purposesTurgor: The abundantpresence of water in thecell stiffens the herbaceousparts of the plant. 3
  • 4. Plants use water for several purposesHydrolysis:Plants often breakapart largemolecules byadding watermolecules orparts of water 4
  • 5. Plants use water for several purposesTranslocation: Thematerials in aplant can bemoved only ifthey aredissolved inwater. 5
  • 6. Clay, loess & loam - what is good soil ?
  • 7. Soil 7
  • 8. Soilis the unconsolidated mineral material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. 8
  • 9. composition of soil by volumeIdeal fertile soil Mineral 45% Organic matter 5% Water 25% Air 25% http://jpkc.snnu.edu.cn/geog/webasp/kj/kejian/6%20turangquan.ppt 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. soil particle Minerals (%) Size mm SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO K2O Na2O P2O5 1~0.2 83.92 9.34 1.12 1.79 0.38 1.78 1.21 0.08 0.2~0.04 73.87 13.47 4.21 3.05 1.05 1.73 1.53 0.120.04~0.01 70.15 14.04 5.86 2.15 1.05 1.48 3.89 0.210.01~0.002 67.21 18.91 7.85 1.45 1.63 2.51 1.27 0.29 <0.002 44.08 27.67 21.81 0.58 1.61 1.10 0.96 0.36 http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/2.1.pptThe larger the particles are, the more SiO2 the soil has, the more barren it is. 11
  • 12. http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/2.1.ppt 12
  • 13. 13http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/2.1.ppt
  • 14. Soil types Soil texture clay clay silt, with small amount of clay loess and sand loam sand, silt, clay 14
  • 15. Clay Mineral: Al2[(OH)4Si2O5] · nH2O Al2O3 · 2SiO2 · 2H2O etc. poor aeration and drainage plastic when wet, when dry become firm 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. Clay is only good for paddy ricefields. 17
  • 18. loess Mineral: most carbonates small amount of clay minerals good aeration, water-holding ability easy to be transported by river and wind for example: 1935 dust storm in midwest United States 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. loam mixture of clay, silt and sand sandy, plastic when wet easily water contain more nutrients than sandy soils ideal fertile soil 21
  • 22. soil pH value The chemistry of plant elements in the soil can be affected by pH. Soil pH is the measurement of acidity (sourness) and alkalinity (sweetness). 22
  • 23.  If the soil pH is acid, or extremely low, some micronutrients become too soluble and occur in concentrations great enough to harm plant. 23
  • 24. Ifsoil pH is high, in the alkaline range, many of the nutrients can be precipitated out and not be available to plants. 24
  • 25. soil pH value in soil pH in soil pH Na2CO3 12~13 CaSO4 7.0 8.5~9.5 7.7~7.1 NaHCO3 H2O 11.47 6.3~6.5~6.8 MgCO3 10.20 Na2SO4 , MgSO4 , NaCl , M 4.7 CaCO3 8.48 3.9~5.7 gCl2CaCO3-withCO2 6.13~8.4 2~4 NH4Cl Ca(HCO3)2 H2CO3 KAl(SO4)2 ; AlCl3 http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/5.1.ppt The best pH value for plants is 6,5 . 26
  • 26. 27http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/5.1.ppt
  • 27. Fruit PLANT TYPE SOIL pH Apple 5.0-6.5 Apricot 6.0-7.0 Arbor Vitae 6.0-7.5Blueberry, high bush 4.0-5.0 Cherry, sour 6.0-7.0 Cherry, sweet 6.0-7.5 Crab apple 6.0-7.5 Cranberry, large 4.2-5.0 Peach 6.0-7.5 Pineapple 5.0-6.0 Raspberry, red 5.5-7.0 28 Strawberry 5.0-6.5 http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/5.1.ppt
  • 28. VegetablesPLANT TYPE SOIL pH Asparagus 6.0-8.0Beets, table 6.0-7.5 Broccoli 6.0-7.0 Cabbage 6.0-7.5 Carrot 5.5-7.0Cauliflower 5.5-7.5 Celery 5.8-7.0 Cucumber 5.5-7.0 Lettuce 6.0-7.0Muskmelon 6.0-7.0 Onion 5.8-7.0 Potato 4.8-6.5 Rhubarb 5.5-7.0 Spinach 6.0-7.5 29 Tomato 5.5-7.5http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/5.1.ppt
  • 29. Summar y Clay: perfect water-holding ability good for paddy rice fields. Both loess and loam can be tillable soil for most of plants. But loam is better, because of more nutrients. more than 1.5% organic matter pH value by 6.5 30
  • 30. Different soil types develop in different climates. Image: T. Loynachan Soils-4-1
  • 31. Prairie soils have a dark surface layer(horizon), are rich in minerals, and form in grasslands widespread across Earth’s middle latitudes.Images: NRCS Soils-4-2
  • 32. Forest soils have a light gray upper horizon, a horizon rich in aluminum and/or iron, and form in warm to coolhumid regions where coniferous forests grow. Image: Soil Classifiers of Michigan
  • 33. Tropical soils are reddish and iron-oxide rich, depleted in nutrients, and form in humid and warm regions.Images: National Cooperative Soil Survey, University of Nebraska Soils-4-4
  • 34. Organic soils are dark colored, rich in decomposed organic matter, and form in poorly drained lowlands such as swamps and wetlands.Images: Bruce Molnia, Soil Classifiers of Michigan Soils-4-5
  • 35. Desert soils form in arid settings and are commonly rich in calcium carbonate. Images: Martin Miller, NRCS
  • 36. Tundra soils form in Arctic environments, have a dark organic-rich upper layer, and a mineral rich layer over frozen ground. 37Images: Travis Hudson, Alaska/Yukon Society of Professional Soil Scientists Soils-4-7