Plants & Water Plants contain large amounts of water. Most herbaceous parts of plants are over  80% water.              ...
Plants use water for   several purposesPhotosynthesis: Foreach molecule ofglucose made by plants,6 or more molecules ofwa...
Plants use water for      several purposesTurgor: The abundantpresence of water in thecell stiffens the herbaceousparts o...
Plants use water for several purposesHydrolysis:Plants often breakapart largemolecules byadding watermolecules orparts of...
Plants use  water for  several purposesTranslocation: Thematerials in aplant can bemoved only ifthey aredissolved inwater...
Clay, loess & loam  - what is good       soil ?
Soil       7
Soilis the unconsolidated mineral material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the ...
composition of soil by volumeIdeal fertile soil Mineral 45% Organic matter 5% Water      25% Air        25%           ...
10
soil particle                                                   Minerals (%)   Size   mm          SiO2     Al2O3        Fe...
http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/2.1.ppt                                                              ...
13http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/2.1.ppt
Soil types               Soil texture  clay       clay             silt, with small amount of clay  loess             and ...
Clay   Mineral: Al2[(OH)4Si2O5] · nH2O              Al2O3 · 2SiO2 · 2H2O    etc.   poor aeration and drainage   plastic...
16
Clay is only good for paddy ricefields.                                   17
loess   Mineral: most carbonates             small amount of clay minerals   good aeration, water-holding ability   eas...
19
20
loam mixture of clay, silt and sand sandy, plastic when wet easily water contain more nutrients than sandy soils idea...
soil pH value The chemistry of plant elements in the soil  can be affected by pH. Soil pH is the measurement of acidity ...
   If the soil pH is    acid, or    extremely low,    some    micronutrients    become too    soluble and    occur in    ...
Ifsoil pH is high, in the alkaline range, many of the nutrients can be precipitated out and not be available to plants.  ...
soil pH value    in soil                  pH                                    in soil        pH   Na2CO3      12~13     ...
27http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/5.1.ppt
Fruit   PLANT TYPE                                     SOIL pH        Apple                                       5.0-6.5 ...
VegetablesPLANT TYPE                                   SOIL pH Asparagus                                     6.0-8.0Beets,...
Summar    y Clay: perfect water-holding ability        good for paddy rice fields. Both loess and loam can be tillable s...
Different soil types develop in      different climates.                  Image: T. Loynachan                             ...
Prairie soils have a dark surface layer(horizon), are rich in minerals, and form in  grasslands widespread across Earth’s ...
Forest soils have a light gray upper  horizon, a horizon rich in aluminum and/or iron, and form in warm to coolhumid regio...
Tropical soils are reddish and iron-oxide rich, depleted in nutrients, and form in        humid and warm regions.Images: N...
Organic soils are dark colored, rich in         decomposed organic matter, and form in         poorly drained lowlands suc...
Desert soils form in arid settings and are commonly rich in calcium carbonate.     Images: Martin Miller, NRCS
Tundra soils form in Arctic environments,             have a dark organic-rich upper layer, and a               mineral ri...
Plants water&soil
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Plants water&soil

270

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
270
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Plants water&soil

  1. 1. Plants & Water Plants contain large amounts of water. Most herbaceous parts of plants are over 80% water. 1
  2. 2. Plants use water for several purposesPhotosynthesis: Foreach molecule ofglucose made by plants,6 or more molecules ofwater must be brokenapart. 2
  3. 3. Plants use water for several purposesTurgor: The abundantpresence of water in thecell stiffens the herbaceousparts of the plant. 3
  4. 4. Plants use water for several purposesHydrolysis:Plants often breakapart largemolecules byadding watermolecules orparts of water 4
  5. 5. Plants use water for several purposesTranslocation: Thematerials in aplant can bemoved only ifthey aredissolved inwater. 5
  6. 6. Clay, loess & loam - what is good soil ?
  7. 7. Soil 7
  8. 8. Soilis the unconsolidated mineral material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. 8
  9. 9. composition of soil by volumeIdeal fertile soil Mineral 45% Organic matter 5% Water 25% Air 25% http://jpkc.snnu.edu.cn/geog/webasp/kj/kejian/6%20turangquan.ppt 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. soil particle Minerals (%) Size mm SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO K2O Na2O P2O5 1~0.2 83.92 9.34 1.12 1.79 0.38 1.78 1.21 0.08 0.2~0.04 73.87 13.47 4.21 3.05 1.05 1.73 1.53 0.120.04~0.01 70.15 14.04 5.86 2.15 1.05 1.48 3.89 0.210.01~0.002 67.21 18.91 7.85 1.45 1.63 2.51 1.27 0.29 <0.002 44.08 27.67 21.81 0.58 1.61 1.10 0.96 0.36 http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/2.1.pptThe larger the particles are, the more SiO2 the soil has, the more barren it is. 11
  12. 12. http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/2.1.ppt 12
  13. 13. 13http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/2.1.ppt
  14. 14. Soil types Soil texture clay clay silt, with small amount of clay loess and sand loam sand, silt, clay 14
  15. 15. Clay Mineral: Al2[(OH)4Si2O5] · nH2O Al2O3 · 2SiO2 · 2H2O etc. poor aeration and drainage plastic when wet, when dry become firm 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. Clay is only good for paddy ricefields. 17
  18. 18. loess Mineral: most carbonates small amount of clay minerals good aeration, water-holding ability easy to be transported by river and wind for example: 1935 dust storm in midwest United States 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. loam mixture of clay, silt and sand sandy, plastic when wet easily water contain more nutrients than sandy soils ideal fertile soil 21
  22. 22. soil pH value The chemistry of plant elements in the soil can be affected by pH. Soil pH is the measurement of acidity (sourness) and alkalinity (sweetness). 22
  23. 23.  If the soil pH is acid, or extremely low, some micronutrients become too soluble and occur in concentrations great enough to harm plant. 23
  24. 24. Ifsoil pH is high, in the alkaline range, many of the nutrients can be precipitated out and not be available to plants. 24
  25. 25. soil pH value in soil pH in soil pH Na2CO3 12~13 CaSO4 7.0 8.5~9.5 7.7~7.1 NaHCO3 H2O 11.47 6.3~6.5~6.8 MgCO3 10.20 Na2SO4 , MgSO4 , NaCl , M 4.7 CaCO3 8.48 3.9~5.7 gCl2CaCO3-withCO2 6.13~8.4 2~4 NH4Cl Ca(HCO3)2 H2CO3 KAl(SO4)2 ; AlCl3 http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/5.1.ppt The best pH value for plants is 6,5 . 26
  26. 26. 27http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/5.1.ppt
  27. 27. Fruit PLANT TYPE SOIL pH Apple 5.0-6.5 Apricot 6.0-7.0 Arbor Vitae 6.0-7.5Blueberry, high bush 4.0-5.0 Cherry, sour 6.0-7.0 Cherry, sweet 6.0-7.5 Crab apple 6.0-7.5 Cranberry, large 4.2-5.0 Peach 6.0-7.5 Pineapple 5.0-6.0 Raspberry, red 5.5-7.0 28 Strawberry 5.0-6.5 http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/5.1.ppt
  28. 28. VegetablesPLANT TYPE SOIL pH Asparagus 6.0-8.0Beets, table 6.0-7.5 Broccoli 6.0-7.0 Cabbage 6.0-7.5 Carrot 5.5-7.0Cauliflower 5.5-7.5 Celery 5.8-7.0 Cucumber 5.5-7.0 Lettuce 6.0-7.0Muskmelon 6.0-7.0 Onion 5.8-7.0 Potato 4.8-6.5 Rhubarb 5.5-7.0 Spinach 6.0-7.5 29 Tomato 5.5-7.5http://netc.nwsuaf.edu.cn/jingpin/2003/turangxue/ppt/5.1.ppt
  29. 29. Summar y Clay: perfect water-holding ability good for paddy rice fields. Both loess and loam can be tillable soil for most of plants. But loam is better, because of more nutrients. more than 1.5% organic matter pH value by 6.5 30
  30. 30. Different soil types develop in different climates. Image: T. Loynachan Soils-4-1
  31. 31. Prairie soils have a dark surface layer(horizon), are rich in minerals, and form in grasslands widespread across Earth’s middle latitudes.Images: NRCS Soils-4-2
  32. 32. Forest soils have a light gray upper horizon, a horizon rich in aluminum and/or iron, and form in warm to coolhumid regions where coniferous forests grow. Image: Soil Classifiers of Michigan
  33. 33. Tropical soils are reddish and iron-oxide rich, depleted in nutrients, and form in humid and warm regions.Images: National Cooperative Soil Survey, University of Nebraska Soils-4-4
  34. 34. Organic soils are dark colored, rich in decomposed organic matter, and form in poorly drained lowlands such as swamps and wetlands.Images: Bruce Molnia, Soil Classifiers of Michigan Soils-4-5
  35. 35. Desert soils form in arid settings and are commonly rich in calcium carbonate. Images: Martin Miller, NRCS
  36. 36. Tundra soils form in Arctic environments, have a dark organic-rich upper layer, and a mineral rich layer over frozen ground. 37Images: Travis Hudson, Alaska/Yukon Society of Professional Soil Scientists Soils-4-7
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×