Mammals

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Mammals

  1. 1. 1Mammals
  2. 2. 2Class Mammalia•Includes 4000 species•Most dominant landanimals on earth.•Two identifyingcharacteristics:•Hair/fur•Mammary glands whichproduce milk
  3. 3. Characteristics ofMammals• Endothermic• Well-developedbrains3
  4. 4. Characteristics of Mammals• Heart has 4chambers• Diaphragm(muscle) aids inbreathing4
  5. 5. Characteristics• Mammals have single lower jaw• Most species have 4 different types of teeth:Incisors, canines, cuspids, and bicuspids• Various types of teeth for different diets5
  6. 6. Characteristics• Mostly viviparous (live birth)• Females secrete milk from mammaryglands to feed newborn young.6
  7. 7. Distinguishing FeaturesTwo features distinguish them from otherinvertebrates: hair and production ofmilk.7
  8. 8. Order Monotremata• Oviparous or egg laying mammals• Only 3 in existence• Duck-billed platypus and two species of spiny anteaterscalled echidna.• Not completely endothermic (their body temperature islower and fluctuates more than other mammals)• Mammae without nipples• Edentulous as adults• Limbs modified forswimming or digging• Australia and New Guinea9
  9. 9. Duck-Billed Platypus•Greek platys meaning broad andpous meaning foot•Several reptilian characteristics:same opening for reproductionand eliminating waste products,the ability to lay eggs•The worlds only venomousfurred animal– Spur on hind foot– Females loose after one year•Bill contains an electro-receptorsystem10
  10. 10. Echidna (Spiny Anteater)• "Echidna" derives fromthe Latin word for "viper”– Tongue protrudes like asnake• Nocturnal• Terrestrial and burrowing• Females normally layonly one egg11
  11. 11. Monotremata12Duck-billed platypusSpiny anteater
  12. 12. Infraclass MetatheriaInfraclass Metatheria(Marsupials)(Marsupials)• Old classification placed all marsupials ina single order• More recent classifications haverecognized the diversity and radiation ofMarsupials• Marsupials now separated into sevenorders• Range, North America, Central America,South America, Australia, New Guinea,adjacent islands 13
  13. 13. 250 species of marsupial speciesexist in Australia, New Guinea,Tasmania, And the Americas• .15TasmanianDevil
  14. 14. Marsupials• Give birth to tiny immature youngthat crawl to a pouch on themothers belly immediately afterthey are born.– Marsupium- Fold of skin protecting nipples16
  15. 15. They attachthemselves tomilk secretingnipples nursinguntil they aremature enoughto surviveoutside thepouch.17
  16. 16. 18
  17. 17. American Marsupial19Order Didelphimorphia- Opossum
  18. 18. • Rat Opossums20
  19. 19. 21
  20. 20. Order DasyuromorphiaOrder Dasyuromorphia• Thylacine • Numbat22Dasyure
  21. 21. Order Peramelemorphia-Order Peramelemorphia-BandicootsBandicoots23
  22. 22. Order Notoryctemorphia-Order Notoryctemorphia-Marsupial MolesMarsupial Moles24
  23. 23. Order DiprotodontiaOrder DiprotodontiaWombats Kangaroos25
  24. 24. Placental Mammals26
  25. 25. Characteristics ofPlacentals• 95% of all mammals• Carry unborn young in the uterus until youngcan survive in the wild.• Oxygen and nutrients are transferred frommother’s blood to baby’s blood27
  26. 26. Placental Characteristics• The placenta is amembrane providingnutrients and waste &gas exchange betweenthe mother anddeveloping young• Gestation period-is thetime which mammalsdevelop in mother’suterus28
  27. 27. Mammals are a diverse groupliving on land and in water. Somemammals can fly!29Malaysian Fruit Bat
  28. 28. Order Insectivora• Consists of 400 species• Includes shrews and moles30MoleShrew
  29. 29. Order Insectivora• Small animals with high metabolicrate and found in North America,Europe, and Asia.• Most have long pointed noses thatenable them to grub for insects,worms, and invertebrates.• Live on ground, trees, in water, andunderground.31
  30. 30. Order Rodentia• Largest mammalian order having over2,400 species.• On every continent except for Antarctica• Includes squirrels, marmots, chipmunks,gophers, muskrats, mice, rats, andporcupines.32Chipmunk
  31. 31. 33PorcupineMarmotSquirrel
  32. 32. Only two incisors in each jaw,grow as long as rodent lives,and used for gnawing34
  33. 33. Order Lagomorpha• Includes rabbits, hares, and smallmountain mammals called pikas.• Found worldwide• Warrens- families of rabbits35PikaHare
  34. 34. Rabbits vs. Hares• Rabbits are smallerand slower• Shorter ears and hindlegs with smaller feet• Solid colored fur• A young rabbit is abunny• Hares are generally largerand faster• Hares have longer ears,longer hind legs, andlarger feet• Hares have blackmarkings on their fur• A young hare is called aleveret36
  35. 35. Order LagomorphaDouble row of incisors, large frontteeth backed with two smaller ones,adaptation for herbivorous diet.37
  36. 36. Order Edentata/Xenarthra• Made up of 30 living species includinganteaters, armadillos, and sloths.• The name edentate means “withoutteeth”• Those with teeth have single root withteeth and no enamel38
  37. 37. Anteater39Sloths
  38. 38. Edentates have adaptations forinsectivorous diets, including along, sticky tongue and clawedfront paws40Anteater feeding at aTermite mound
  39. 39. Sloths, on the other hand havecontinuously growing teeth as anadaptation for grinding plants41
  40. 40. Chiroptera• Made up of over 900 species of bats• Live throughout the world except in polarenvironments42
  41. 41. 41Bat Skeleton
  42. 42. • A bat’s wing is modified front limb whichskin membrane between extremely longfinger bones• Bats use thumbs for climbing, walking, orgrasping43
  43. 43. Order Chiroptera• Most bats are active at night and have aspecial way to navigate using echolocation(bouncing off high-frequency soundwaves)• Frequency of returning sound waves withthe size, distance, and rate of movementof different objects44
  44. 44. Order Chiroptera• Bats that useecholocation havesmall eyes andlarge ears.• Feed on insects andhave teethspecialized forsuch diets45
  45. 45. • Some feed on fruit and flower nectarand do not use echolocation.• These bats are sometimes called flyingfoxes, have large eyes and keen senseof smell.46
  46. 46. Orders Cetacea and Sirenia• 90 species of whales, dolphins, andporpoises are distributed worldwide.• Cetaceans have fishlike bodies withforelimbs modified as flippers.47
  47. 47. • Cetaceans divided into two groups which aretoothed whales and baleen whales.• Toothed whales include beaked whales, spermwhales, beluga whales, narwhals, killer whales,dolphins and porpoises.• Blue whales largest animal in world ~ 100 tons48
  48. 48. • Have over 100 teeth• Prey on fish, squid, seals andwhales49
  49. 49. • Baleen whales lack teeth• Baleen-thin plates of finger likematerial for filtering food from water• Shrimp and other small invertebratesare the prey of the baleen whales.50
  50. 50. The Order Sirenia is made up of fourspecies of manatees and dugongs.51
  51. 51. • Front limbs are flippers forswimming• Sirenians lack hind legs but haveflattened tails.52
  52. 52. Order Carnivora• 250 living species in carnivoria aredistributed worldwide• Most of the species mainly eat meat, whichexplains the name.• About 34 species: Canids, felids, bears,raccoons, minks, sea lions, seals, walruses,and otters53
  53. 53. Some members of thisorder such as bears feedextensively on plantmaterial as well as meat,so they are calledomnivores.Carnivores generally havelong canine teeth, strongjaws, clawed toes.Highly developed sense ofsmell and a largebraincase54
  54. 54. Suborder Pinnipedia• Pinnipedia are water dwellingcarnivores and have streamlinedbodies• Sea lions (ear flaps), seals (no earflaps) and walruses (elongatedcanines)55
  55. 55. Orders Artiodactyla andPerissodactyla• Ungulates-hoofed mammals• These two classes are herbivores.– Mostly grazers/browsers• Ruminants- four chambered stomach• The first three chambers are for storage(rumen), use cellulase (digestive enzyme)to aid in breakdown of cellulose– “Chewing the cud”• Regurgitate, chew again, and undergoes doubledigestion.56
  56. 56. Order Artiodactyla- Ungulates with an even amount oftoes- Pigs, hippos, camels, antelope, deer,sheep, giraffes, cattle57
  57. 57. Order Perissodactyla- Ungulates with an odd number oftoes- Horses, rhins, zebras, and tapirs58
  58. 58. Order Proboscidea• Characterized by a boneless nose orproboscis• Elephants are the largest land dwellersalive today, weighing more than 6 tons.– African (largest land mammal) and Indian/Asianspecies59
  59. 59. It has modified incisors, called tusks, fordigging up roots and stripping bark frombranches.60
  60. 60. Order Primates• 200 living species of primates classifiedas prosimians.• Including lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys,gibbons, and great apes61
  61. 61. • Omnivorous diets• Unspecialized teeth• Grasping digits with free-moving limbs• Finger and toenails• A complex brain has enabled anthropoids to developbehaviors and to live in highly organized social groups.– Ex: Troop- chimpanzee groups62
  62. 62. Order Primates63

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