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Introduction to satire

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  • 1. Bellringer… Examine the cartoon. Then,answer all of the followingquestions about it in completesentences. What event is the artistalluding to in this cartoon? What message is beingimplied? Is the implication effective?Why or why not?
  • 2. Introduction toSatire
  • 3. The Art of IndirectPersuasion If you’ve ever enjoyed watching late-night comedyshows, you know how effective and fun this approachcan be when it comes to changing perception of thesubjects being lampooned. You’ll immerse yourself in the art of satire, exploringhow writers use a range of genres and techniques,including parody, to present their messages in indirectways.
  • 4. The Art of IndirectPersuasion Additionally, you’ll explore how diction and syntax canbe used to create humor as well as a wide range ofsatirical tones. Finally, you’ll explore how satirists manipulate andparody the conventions and content of other formatsand genres to advance their purposes as writers.
  • 5. Satire Satire is a literary genre that uses irony, wit,and sometimes sarcasm to exposehumanity’s vices and foibles, giving impetus,or momentum, to change or reform throughridicule. It is a manner of writing that mixes a criticalattitude with wit and humor in an effort toimprove mankind and human institutions.
  • 6. Satire While some writers and commentators use aserious tone to persuade their audiences toaccept their perspective on various issues,some writers specifically use humor toconvey a serious message.
  • 7. 7What is Satire? Though he laughs, the satirist tells the truth Compels readers to look at a sight theymissed or shunned - move them to protest Through laughter, aims to cure folly andpunish evil
  • 8. 8Two Types of Satirists Optimist Likes people, but thinks they arerather blind and foolish Tells the truth with a smile Cures people of their ignorance Writes in order to heal
  • 9. 9Two Types of SatiristsPessimistLoves individuals, hatesmankindAim is to wound, to punish,to destroyJuvenalian satire
  • 10. Satire
  • 11. Types of Direct Satire Horatian satire is a type of directsatire which pokes fun at human foibleswith a witty even indulgent tone. Juvenalian satire is a type of directsatire which denounces, sometimeswith invective, human vice and error indignified and solemn tones.
  • 12. Horatian Satire This type of satire is named after the Roman satiristHoratian. It seeks to criticize, rather than attack, immorality orstupidity. In general, Horatian satire is gentler, more sympathetic, andmore tolerant of human folly. Unlike Juvenalian satire, it serves to make us laugh athuman folly as opposed to holding our failures up forneedling. Horatian satire tends to ridicule human folly in general or bytype rather than attack specific persons. It tends to produce a smile.
  • 13. 13Types of Satire• Horatian: gentle, sympathetic form ofsatire. Mildly mocks the subject. Theaudience is asked to laugh at themselvesas much as the players.
  • 14. Horatian Satire
  • 15. Juvenalian Satire This type of satire is named after the Roman satiristJuvenal. It is harsher than Horatian satire because it oftenattacks and shows contempt for people. Often, it seeks to address some evil in societythrough scorn and ridicule. The Juvenalian satirist approaches his work in amore serious manner and uses dignified language toattack erroneous thinking or vice. In this way Juvenalian satire evokes feelings ofscorn, shock, and righteous indignation in the mindof the reader.
  • 16. Juvenalian Satire
  • 17. Characteristics ofSatiric Writing The following slides describe the variouscharacteristics that often appear in satiricwriting. As you read the literature in the remainderof this unit, your goal will be to identify andanalyze these characteristics and theireffect on the various texts.
  • 18. Irony Irony is a mode of expression, throughwords (verbal irony) or events (irony ofsituation), conveying a reality differentfrom and usually opposite to appearanceor expectation. The surprise recognition by the audienceoften produces a comic effect, makingirony often funny.
  • 19. Irony When a text intended to be ironic does notseen as such, the effect can bedisastrous. To be an effective piece of sustainedirony, there must be some sort ofaudience tip-off, through style, tone, use ofclear exaggeration, or other device.
  • 20. Irony
  • 21. Hyperbole Hyperbole is deliberate exaggeration toachieve an effect; overstatement.
  • 22. Litotes Litotes are a form of understatement that involvesmaking an affirmative point by denying its opposite. For Example: “Being tortured with fire must have been somewhatuncomfortable.” “Rap videos with dancers in them are not uncommon.“ “There are a few Starbucks in America."
  • 23. Caricature A caricature is an exaggeration or otherdistortion of an individuals prominentfeatures or characteristics to the point ofmaking that individual appear ridiculous. The term is applied more often to graphicrepresentations than to literary ones.
  • 24. 24Forms of Satire Caricature, Exaggeration: Distortion for emphasis Usually focuses on powerful subjects Emphasize physical characteristics in order tomake deeper criticism
  • 25. Caricature
  • 26. Wit Wit is most commonly understood as cleverexpression, whether aggressive or harmless;that is, with or without derogatory intent towardsomeone or something in particular. We also tend to think of wit as beingcharacterized by a mocking or paradoxicalquality, evoking laughter through apt phrasing.
  • 27. Wit
  • 28. Sarcasm Sarcasm is intentional derision, generallydirected at another person and intended to hurt. The term comes from a Greek word meaning “totear flesh like dogs” and signifies a cuttingremark. Sarcasm usually involves obvious, verbal irony,achieving its effect by jeeringly stating theopposite of what is meant so as to heighten theinsult.
  • 29. Sarcasm
  • 30. 30
  • 31. Ridicule Ridicule is the use of words intended tobelittle a person or idea and arousecontemptuous laughter. The goal is to condemn or criticize bymaking the thing, idea, or person seemlaughable and ridiculous.
  • 32. Ridicule
  • 33. Parody A parody is an imitation of an author orhis/her work with the idea of ridiculing theauthor, his/her ideas, or the work itself. A parodist exploits the peculiarities of anauthor’s expression—the propensity touse too many parentheses, certain favoritewords, or other elements of the author’sstyle.
  • 34. 34Parody Imitation which, through distortion andexaggeration, evokes amusement,derision, and sometimes scorn Borrows a pre-existing form The Daily Show, The Colbert Report Spaceballs
  • 35. Parody “Amish Paradise” Weird Al Yankovic
  • 36. Invective Invective is speech or writing that abuses,denounces, or attacks. It can be directed againsta person, cause, idea, or system. It employs a heavy use of negative emotivelanguage. For Example: “I cannot but conclude the bulk ofyour natives to be the most pernicious race oflittle odious vermin that nature ever suffered tocrawl upon the surface of the earth.” (Swift,Gulliver’s Travels)
  • 37. Invective
  • 38. 38Invective: Direct attack Stated without irony or sarcasm Do not have to figure out what thesatirist is trying to say Dennis Miller, Chris Rock, GeorgeCarlin
  • 39. Assignment Watch the following video: http://youtu.be/OSXNU1_bouc 1. As you watch, jot down all of thevarious characteristics of satire you seein the video. 2. Then, determine whether the video isHoratian or Juvenalian satire and writea sentence or two explaining why.