Internet governance and corruption


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A presentation to the Giga-Net Workshop on Internet governance

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Internet governance and corruption

  1. 1. Ewan SutherlandLINK Centre, Wits UniversityCRIDS, University of NamurGIGA-net Workshop17-18 May 2013 Geneva
  2. 2.  Corruption Washington consensus US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act UN Convention Against Corruption Web sites against corruption IGF and other odies What to doEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 2
  3. 3.  Washington consensus Competitive telecommunications markets Privatisation of fixed line incumbents Liberalisation – allowing additional mobilenetwork operators Regulation by an independent authorityEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 3
  4. 4.  Privatisation:◦ Monopoly on international gateway◦ Mobile network licence◦ Concealed assets Licensing:◦ Bribery◦ Cronyism◦ Nepotism◦ Head of state/government Regulation:◦ Façade◦ Bribe takersEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 4
  5. 5.  Post-Watergate era legislation Outlaws paying bribes in other jurisdictions Applies to any:◦ Corporation registered or listed in USA◦ Citizen or resident Obligation on corporations to self-investigateand to inform investors and the SEC Prosecuted:◦ Siemens, Alcatel, Lucent, Qualcomm◦ Deutsche Telekom, Magyar Telekom, some smalleroperators◦ Ex-Congressman Bill “Cold cash” JeffersonEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 5
  6. 6.  Entered into force in December 2005 Requires the outawing of:◦ domestic bribery of officials◦ bribery of foreign officials Provides for:◦ Mutual legal assistance◦ Asset recovery Biennial conferences of the states parties Beginnings of a system of peer reviewEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 6
  7. 7.  India Kenya Morocco Azerbaijan Ukrain Italy Greece KosovoEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 7
  8. 8. Year Conference Location Control ofcorruption2011CPI20122003 WSIS Phase I Geneva, Switzerland 95.7 6th2005 WSIS Phase II Tunis, Tunisia 53.1 75th2006 IGF Athens, Greece 55.9 94th2007 IGF Rio de Janeiro, Brasil 63.0 69th2008 IGF Hyderabad, India 35.1 94th2009 IGF Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt 28.0 118th2010 IGF Vilnius, Lithuania 65.9 48th2011 IGF Nairobi, Kenya 18.5 139th2012 IGF Baku, Azerbaijan 9.5 139th2013 IGF Bali, Indonesia 27.5 118thEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 8Worldwide governance indicator for the control of corruption is a“percentile rank”, with higher numbers indicating less corruption
  9. 9.  Internet Governance Forum (IGF)◦ UN General Assembly resolution A/Res/60/252 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names & Numbers (ICANN)◦ Registered in California as a non-profit corporation C3289942 Government Advisory Committee (GAC)◦ Article XI of the ICANN Bylaws Internet Architecture Board (IAB)◦ Own charter (RFC 2850) and is a committee of the IETF and an advisory body to theInternet Society Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)◦ “a large open international community” Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)◦ RFC 2014 and RFC 4440 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)◦ “W3C does not have a typical organizational structure, nor is it incorporated.” W3C isadministered via a joint agreement among four host institutions: MIT, ERCIM, KeioUniversity, and Beihang University. Internet Society (ISOC)◦ Registered in the District of Columbia as a non-profit corporation 924447Ewan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 9
  10. 10.  International Telecommunication Union:◦ We cannot name the convicted Body of European Regulators of ElectronicCommunications:◦ Lack of resources Our sponsors would not like it Is your research not dangerous?◦ My imminent bloody demise◦ My bankruptcy through defamation damagesEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 10
  11. 11.  Talk about it Set a no tolerance policy Require◦ Bodies to register and publish accounts◦ Individuals to declare interest Dynamic Coalition against Corruption:◦ UN Office for Drugs and Crime◦ Corporate Compliance Officers (e.g., Siemens)◦ Transparency International Internet Initiative against Corruption◦ Like other sector initiatives◦ Follow the money◦ Publicise codes of conductEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 11
  12. 12.  Assumption seems to be thatmultistakeholderism is immune to corruption Money and influence are very hard to track Everybody is a lobbyist Corruption has been and is a severe problemin network infrastructure:◦ Consequently markets badly underperformEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 12
  13. 13.  Unpick the lobbying efforts of variouscommercial groups Identify if there has been◦ capture or corruption Re-examine conventional anti-corruptionmethods to check they fit withmultistakeholderism Identify and publish data to improvetransparencyEwan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 13
  14. 14. Ewan Sutherland, May 2013, GIGA-net, Geneva 14 Ewan Sutherland sutherla [at] +44 141 649 4040 skype://sutherla