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Senior Seminar Project on 'Plant-based biofuel for rural community development'

Senior Seminar Project on 'Plant-based biofuel for rural community development'

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    Biofuel Presentation Biofuel Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Plant-based biofuels for rural community development
      PalizaShrestha, Mount Holyoke College
      ES-390
    • Background
      • Current ways of energy use is unsustainable
      • Demand for renewable energy sources is expected to rise in future
      • Biofuel gaining worldwide popularity since first manufactured in Europe
      • U.S. promoting industrial biofuel to solve climate crisis
      • Small scale biofuel projects sprouting in rural communities
    • What is biofuel?
      • Liquid fuel produced from plant products
      • Category: Biodiesel, ethanol, methanol, pure vegetable oil
      • An alternative to petroleum based fuel
      • Biodiesel feed stocks:
      • Palm
      • Coconut
      • Jatrophacurcas
      • Rapeseed/ Mustard seed
      • Sunflower
      • Corn
      • Soybean
      • Peanuts
      • Algae
      • Used restaurant oil
      • Animal fats
      Coconut seeds
      Pond Algae
      Palm seeds
      Jatropha seeds
      Rapeseeds
      Sunflower seeds
      Soybean seeds
      Corn
    • How is biodiesel made?
      Alcohol (Ethanol, Methanol)
      Catalyst
      (NaOH/KOH)
      & HEAT!
      Biodiesel
      Esters of 3
      fatty acid chains
      Glycerine molecule which
      is separated out
      Vegetable
      Oil Molecule
    • Industrial biofuel and environmental degradation
      Massive deforestation in tropical rainforest in Indonesia to convert to oil palm plantations
      8% of global CO2 emissions
      21% of Brazil’s agricultural land converted to soy bean plantation
      Displaced over 300,000 people
      Since Jan 2003, 70,000 km2 of Amazon rainforest cleared for biofuel production
      Forests and soil store 3x the amount of CO2 than does the atmosphere
      More….
      High production costs (energy)
      Competition between food crop and fuel crop
      Price increases in world grains, cereals and vegetable oils
    • Can biofuels work sustainably?
      I think so…
      At the local level in isolated rural communities with
      • intermingled with development projects
      • effective government policies to protect farmers from competition
      • decentralized
      • Small scale biodiesel plants in developing countries had led to
      • rural electrification
      • improving irrigation & agriculture
      • job creation
      • women empowerment
      • power to local community
      • self sufficiency
    • Engine driven
      oil expeller
      An hour of pedaling activity converts
      vegetable oil to biodiesel in an Indian village.
      The fuel is used to run irrigation pumps, tillers,
      rice hulling mills and generate electricity.
      Biodiesel plant to power shea butter
      processing equipment, Ghana, initiated
      by women’s group and UNIFEM
    • Steps to initiating pilot projects in rural communities
      Mobilize community groups , e.g. 10 to 15 households
      Awareness workshops including gender sensitivity
      Engage local men and women in interactive dialogue and discussions
      Install irrigation pump and oil expeller for each community group
      Provide skill training and instruction manuals
      Form Village energy committee
      Encourage household to plant jatropha plants in their private wastelands or in poorer sections of their field, e.g. on the borders of the fields
      Conduct technical and business skill training to women from preparing organic fertilizer from oil cake to producing vegetable cash crops to sell in the market
      Establish a small micro-finance bank so villagers can take loans
    • Biodiesel processor
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_U7Lk89dXw
      Ethanol
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59R-NqykoXs&feature=related
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqfW0VmONXc&feature=related
      Algae
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dBLVtAMn5A&NR=1&feature=fvwp
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9_-ZguuhBw&feature=related
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRYcEPVsKhg&feature=related
    • Bibliography
      Greg Pahl. Biodiesel: Growing a new energy economy. 2007. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White Rive Junction, VT.
      Biofuels for transport: Global potential and implications for sustainable energy and agriculture. Worldwatch Institute. 2007. Camden High Street, London, UK.
      Biofuels for sustainable rural development and empowerment of women. 2009. ENERGIA. The Netherlands.
      Vandana Shiva. Soil Not Oil. 2008. South End Press, Cambridge, MA.