Week 4 EDS 220Vygotsky’s Social Perspective on Cognitive Development Dr. Evrim Baran
Assignment for this week• For each stage, bring an example on how you would teach a child a topic in your field (e.g. an example of teaching numbers at preoperational stage, teaching algebra at concrete operational stage)
AN EVALUATION OF PIAGET’S THEORY– Does cognitive development really occur in stages?– Does Piaget “explain” cognitive development? – more of an description– Little attention to social/cultural influences
The impacts of social interaction on cognitive development
Cultural HistoricalTheory of Cognitive DevelopmentRole of culture on thedevelopment of highermental functions (e.g. Speech, reasoning)
Socio cultural perspectiveChildren’s knowledge, ideas,attitudes, and values develop through interactions with others.
Lev Vygotsky• Born in 1896 in the Soviet Union• Educated as a lawyer and philologist (to study written records and determining authenticity and meaning)• Began career as psychologist in 1917• His works were finally available to U.S. in 1958
DEVELOPMENT LEADS LEARNING LEADS LEARNING!!! COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET VYGOTSKY
Child is a scientist, Cognitive development construct an depends much more onunderstanding of the the people in child’sworld largely alone. world. PIAGET VYGOTSKY
• Mental development is a social process rather than a biological one.• Although natural structure has a role in cognitive development, social process has more influence on it.• The main source of cognitive development is interaction with others.• Cognitive development levels of children will be different in diverse cultures because the process of interaction with others may vary in different cultures.
3. Complex mental 2. Thought and processes begin as social activities. 4. Children can perform language become more challenging tasks increasingly when assisted by more independent in the first advanced and few years of life. competent individuals.1. Adults convey tochildren the way theirculture interprets andresponds to the world. 5. Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive development. 6. Play allows children to strech themselves cognitively.
Chinese and Englishnumber words from 1to 20. The moresystematic Chinesenumbering systemfollows a base-tenlogic (i.e., 11translating as “tenone” [“shi yee”])requiring less rotememorization, whichmay explain whyChinese-speakingchildren learn to countto 20 earlier thanEnglish-speakingchildren.
Speech begins as a means of communication and socializing and later becomes a tool of thinking.1. Preintellectual speech2. Autonomous speech3. Naive psychology4. Communicative and egocentric speech http://education- portal.com/academy/lesson/lev-vygotskys- theory-of-cognitive-development.html
WHAT IS PRIVATE SPEECH? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuDeh_raBxM
WHAT IS PRIVATE SPEECH?Why is it important?• This is not a sign of cognitive immaturity.• These mutterings have important role in cognitive maturity.• Communicating with oneself to guide behavior and thinking.• Peaks around the ages of 5-7 and generally disappears by 9 years old.
WHAT IS PRIVATE SPEECH?• Transition from audible private speech to silent inner speech is a fundamental process in cognitive development.• Using language to accomplish important cognitive activities such as directing attention, solving problems, planning, forming concepts, and gaining seld- control.
WHAT IS PRIVATE SPEECH?«Let’s see, the first step is…» or «as soon as Iget home I am going to…» or «If I work tothe end of this page, then I can»«Okay, what is it I have to do?....I have to goslowly and carefully. Ok, I draw the linedown, down, good, then to the right, that’sit, now…»
Zone of Proximal DevelopmentRange of tasks a child can perform with the help and guidance of others, but cannot yet perform independently.
Zone of Proximal Development WHAT I CAN’T DO WHAT I CAN DO WITH HELP WHAT I CAN DO
ZONE OF PROXİMAL DEVELOPMENT Skills too difficult for a child to master on his/her own, but can be done with guidance and encouragement from a knowledgeable person.What is What isknown not known LEARNING
Zone of Proximal Development: Area where the most sensitive information or guidance should occur. 1. ACTUAL 2. LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Upper limit of tasks aUpper limit of tasks child can perform witha child can perform the assistance of a more individually competent individual.
Scaffold: An external structure that provides support for the workers(e.g. a place where they can stand) until the building is strong enoughto support them.As the building gains more stability, the scaffold becomes lessnecessary and so is gradually removed.
Scaffolding• Support mechanism that helps a learner perform a task within his or her own ZPD.• An adult guiding a child through a new task may provide an initial scaffold to support the child’s early efforts.• As a child becomes capable of working without much support, the adult gradually removes it.
Solve this equation!!! Help me to use some concepts developed by Vygotsky!!!
The ZPD should be assessed by the instructors on a regular basis.• First solve the problem and observe whether the child can imitate demonstration.• Begin to solve the problem and ask the children to complete the solution.• Ask the child to cooperate with another more developed child in solving the problem.
Zone of Proximal Developmenthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zu-rr2PRNkE
ZONE OF PROXİMAL DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS• Work with students to develop a plan for accomplishing a new task• Demonstrate proper performance of the task in a way that students can easily imitate.• Divide complex tasks into several smaller tasks.• Provide a structure or set of guidelines for how the task should be accomplished.• Provide a calculateor or computer software or other technology that makes some aspects of the task easier.• Ask questions that get students’ thinking in appropriate ways about the task.• Keep students’ attention focused on the relevant aspects of the task• Keep students motivated to complete the task.• Remind students what their goal is in performing the task• Give frequent feedback about how students are progressing.
Basic Question How are the culturalHow do humans create tools of knowledge knowledge in all transmitted in a specific cultures? culture? VYGOTSKY PIAGET
Egocentric and Private Speech Private speech plays an important role Indicates cognitive maturity in cognitive development (throughbecause young children cannot moving children toward selfsee the world through the eyes regulation, planning, monitoring and of others and engage in guiding problem solving). Increases at reciprocal communication younger ages and than gradually (declines with age) decreases and becomes internal speech. VYGOTSKY PIAGET
Role of Language Aids in developing symbolic Plays an important role in cognitivethought. It does not qualitatively development. Child’s conversations raise the level of intellectual and interactions with adults and morefunctioning because the level of able peers qualitatively raise the levelintellectual functioning is raised of intellectual functioning. by action. VYGOTSKY PIAGET
Social Interaction Provides a way to test and Social interaction provides anvalidate schemes, encourages opportunity for acquiring language development by creating and the cultural exchange of ideas. cognitive disequilibrium. VYGOTSKY PIAGET
View of Learners Learners should be active in Learners should be active in socialmanipulating objects and ideas. contexts and interactions. VYGOTSKY PIAGET
Instructional applications Formal instruction cannot accelerate cognitive Effective instruction can further development. development. Experiences that create Scaffolding must be provided.cognitive disequilibrium should be designed. VYGOTSKY PIAGET
Activity• Form groups of 5.• Talk about unique things that you can teach each other (e.g. a yoga pose, how to count 1- 10 in French, an aikido move)• Reflect on the teaching and learning experience, ZPD and scaffolding strategies• What was the experience like?
Assignment• Locate a topic in your field• How would you teach that topic to a child at certain age (specify) using ZPD and scaffolding.• Bring an example to the class