A child seeing a zebra for the first time and calling it a horse. The child assimilates this information into her schema for a horse. When the child accommodates information, she takes into consideration the different properties of a zebra compared to a horse, perhaps calling a zebra a horse with stripes. When she eventually learns the name of zebra, she has accommodated this information.
A mental representation, or schema of a certain group of people (a racist schema) -- your whole life you grew up with those around you just adding more and more information to that schema that made sense to you (assimilation) -- you only notice information that fits your schema (assimilation) and confirms it -- then you get to college and actually meet people from that group and realize what you have learned from real interactions requires a radical reorganization of your schemaregarding that group (accommodation). Your new schema is completely different, not just full of additional information
Assimilation is like adding air into a balloon. You just keep blowing it up. It gets bigger and bigger. For example, a two year old's schema of a tree is "green and big with bark" -- over time the child adds information (some trees lose their leaves, some trees have names, we use a tree at Christmas, etc.) - Your balloon just gets full of more information that fits neatly with what you know and adds onto it.Accommodation is when you have to turn your round balloon into the shape of a poodle. This new balloon "animal" is a radical shift in your schema (or balloon shape). The tree example works well where we live so I go with that, but you can invent your own. Now that they are in college in the redwood forest, we have conceptualization (schema) of trees as a source of political warfare, a commodity, a source of income for some people, we know that people sit and live in trees to save them; in other words, trees are economic, political, and social vehicles. This complete change in the schema involves a lot of cognitive energy, or accommodation, a shift in our schema.
A child learns his father is called Daddy, so he calls other males ( e.g. the mailman) Daddy. This is assimilation. He is quickly told that the other man is not Daddy, he is _______. Again, the schema for Daddy is modified. This is accommodation.
Week 3 presentation piaget
Week 3 EDS 220COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Dr. Evrim Baran
What do you think?How would you explain the concept of “symbol” to a 6 year old and to a 14 year old. Would you use words? Would you use symbols? Specific examples? What kind? What do you know about how younger and older children develop?
DevelopmentOrderly adaptive changes we go through from conception to death (Woolfolk, 1993, p. 26)PhysicalSocialMoralCognitive
Principles of Development People develop at different rates Development is relatively ordely Development takes place gradually
What does influence development?Biological maturation Activity Social experiences Equibilibration
Jean Piagett• Born: August 9, 1896• Died: Sept. 16, 1980• Birth Place: – Neuchatel, Switzerland• Education: – Received PhD from University of Neuchatel• Married in 1923 to Valentine Chatenay and bore 3 children
Piaget Background• Young Piaget was incredibly precocious – Published first paper at 10 – Wrote on mollusks, based on these writings was asked to be curator of mollusks at a museum in Geneva (he declined in order to finish secondary school) – Earned his doctorate in natural sciences at 21 – Began to study psychology, applying intelligence tests to school
Old idea: Children’s minds were just like adult minds with less knowledgeNew idea: Children think differently qualitatively than an adult.
Child is not a “tabula rasa” with the “real world” out there waiting to be discovered.Mind is constructed through interaction with the environment;Brain develops through a series of stages.
Child as scientistChildren are naturally curious and create theories about how the world worksMental structures intrinsically active constantly being applied to experienceLeads to curiosity and desire to knowDevelopment proceeds as the child actively refines his/her knowledge of the world through many “small experiments”.
How does Piaget describe developmental change?• Children will not be ready to learn if they are not developed mentally and if their mind has not progressed to the next stage.• If children are developed mentally ready to learn they will be interested in the topic if it is developed mentally appropriate.
Basic tendencies in thinking• Organization: Combining, arranging, re-combining, rearranging behaviors and thoughts into coherent systems.• Adaptation: Adjusting to the environment
So, what is a scheme?• Organized systems of action or thought that allow us to represent mentally or “think about” the objects and events in our world.• Basic building blocks of thinking.
So, what is a scheme?• Sucking through a straw• Recognizing a rose• Drinking• Categorizing plans
How do cognitive structures develop?Processes of adaptation: Assimilation andaccommodation Assimilation: The incorporation of new experience into existing structures. (FITTING) Accommodation: The changing of old structures so that new experiences can be processed. Assimilation is conservative Accommodation is progressive
Equilibration Searching for a mental balance betweencognitive schemes and information from the environment.
DisequilibriumOut of balance state that occurs when a person realizes that his or her current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a situation.
Cognitive GrowthEquilibrium Harmony between one’s schemes and experienceAssimilation Tries to adapt to new experience by interpreting it in terms of existing schemesAccommodation Modifies existing schemes to better account for puzzling new experienceOrganization Rearranges existing schemes into new and more complex structures
Stages of cognitive development• Children periodically reach a point where their theories are wrong most of the time and so they must reorganize thinking about the social and physical worlds• Three reorganizations of theories lead to four stages of cognitive development• Piaget believed all children pass through stages in same order
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)Sensori (senses) Motor (actions,body movements)
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Sensing information and performing actions accordingly.• Unconscious, self-unaware, and non- symbolic cognition.• Basic motor reflexes: grasping, sucking, eye movements, orientation to sound etc.
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Object permanence: Realizing that objects in the environment exist whether the baby perceives them or not. 8 -12 months OUT OF SIGHT OUT OF MIND
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Object permanence Peekaboo Ce-eeee
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Goal directed actions: Deliberate actions towards a goal
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Education at this stage?
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)Early childhood to early elementary years Operation: An action carried out through logic. Preoperation: Before logical thinking processes
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Internalization of actions: Performing an action mentally rather than physically.• The ability to form symbols: Words, gestures, signs, images• Mental actions do not follow a pattern of logic
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Perceptual centration: Tendency to focus only on one dimension of an action or issue and ignore other dimensions
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Irreversibility: Lack of ability thinking backwards or making use of actions or knowledge from the past.• Conservation: The amount or number of something remains the same of the arrangement or appearance is changed, as long as nothing is taken away.
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Egocentrism: Assuming that others experience the world the way you do.
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Collective monologue: Form of speech in which children in a group talk but do not really interact or communicate.
Stage 2 Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Use concrete props and visual aids whenever possible (pizza to demonstrate whole, one half, add and substract with sticks, rocks, colored chips)• Make instructions relatively short (Demonstrating of entering the class quietly, explain a game by acting out the parts, show examples of finished products)• Don’t expect them to see the world from someone else’s point of view (social problems)• Students may have different meanings for the same word (Ask children to explain the meaning of invented words.)• Give them a great deal of hands on experience (cut out letters to build words)• Provide wide range of experiences (taking field trips, invite story tellers to class)
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• Concrete operations: Mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations.• Hands-on thinking• Logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects.• Egocentric thought diminishes, operational thinking develops.
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• If/then thinking (if x happens then y happens)• Solving conservation problems (identity, compensation, reversibility)• Classification (put things in correct group based on a number of attributes)
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• Classifying objects by using size, shape, color, and other characteristics.• Seriation: Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, shape, weight, or volume. A<B<C
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)Not able to reason hypothetical, abstractproblems that involve the coordination of many factors at once.
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• Use concrete props and visual aids when dealing with sophisticated problems (e.g. time lines in history, diagrams of hierarchical relationships)• Give them a chance to manipulate and test objects (scientific experiments• Make presentations and readings brief and well organized (stories, short books)• Use familiar examples• Give opportunities to classify and group objects
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• How would you teach a child at this stage about human body?
Stage 4:Formal Operational Stage (11-15 yearsold)• Formal operations: Mental systems for controlling sets of variables and working through a set of possibilities.• Logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts.• What is to what might be. – How life would be different if people did not sleep?• Hypothetico-deductive reasonings. Inductive reasoning
Stage 4:Formal Operational Stage (11-15 yearsold)• Adolescent egocentrism: Assumption that everyone else shares one’s thoughts, feelings, and concerns.• Imaginary audience: The feeling that everyone is watching.
Stage 4: Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years old) “Everyone noticed that I wore this shirt twice this week”“The whole class thought my answer was dump” “No one else in this world can possibly understand how I feel”
Stage 4: Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years old)• What is the difference between egocentrism in young children and egocentrism in adolescents?
Stage 4:Formal Operational Stage (11-15 yearsold) Do we all reach the fourth stage?
Stage 4:Formal Operational Stage (11-15 yearsold)Helping students to build formal operations• Continue to use concrete-operational teaching strategy and materials (charts, illustrations)• Give students the opportunity to explore many hypothetical questions (position papers on social issues, economy, personal vision an utopia, describe earth after humans are extinct)• Give students opportunities to solve problems and reason scientifically (design experiments, debates)• Teach broad concepts ideas relevant to students’ lives (world history)
Applications of Piaget’s Theory for TeachersExamples?
Limitations of Piaget’s Theory for TeachersExamples?1. Underestimating young children’s cognitive abilities, overestimating older children’s cognitive abilities2. Overemphasizing the biological influence on cognitive development3. Not taking into account of the effect of the culture and social group on children.
Assignment for next week• For each stage, bring an example on how you would teach a child a topic in your field (e.g. an example of teaching numbers at preoperational stage, teaching algebra at concrete operational stage)