Week 3 EDS 220COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Dr. Evrim Baran
What do you think?How would you explain the concept of “symbol” to a 6 year old and to a 14 year old. Would you use words? Would you use symbols? Specific examples? What kind? What do you know about how younger and older children develop?
DevelopmentOrderly adaptive changes we go through from conception to death (Woolfolk, 1993, p. 26)PhysicalSocialMoralCognitive
Principles of Development People develop at different rates Development is relatively ordely Development takes place gradually
What does influence development?Biological maturation Activity Social experiences Equibilibration
Nature or Nurture? Heredity vs.Environment
Jean Piagett• Born: August 9, 1896• Died: Sept. 16, 1980• Birth Place: – Neuchatel, Switzerland• Education: – Received PhD from University of Neuchatel• Married in 1923 to Valentine Chatenay and bore 3 children
Piaget Background• Young Piaget was incredibly precocious – Published first paper at 10 – Wrote on mollusks, based on these writings was asked to be curator of mollusks at a museum in Geneva (he declined in order to finish secondary school) – Earned his doctorate in natural sciences at 21 – Began to study psychology, applying intelligence tests to school
Old idea: Children’s minds were just like adult minds with less knowledgeNew idea: Children think differently qualitatively than an adult.
Child is not a “tabula rasa” with the “real world” out there waiting to be discovered.Mind is constructed through interaction with the environment;Brain develops through a series of stages.
Child as scientistChildren are naturally curious and create theories about how the world worksMental structures intrinsically active constantly being applied to experienceLeads to curiosity and desire to knowDevelopment proceeds as the child actively refines his/her knowledge of the world through many “small experiments”.
How does Piaget describe developmental change?• Children will not be ready to learn if they are not developed mentally and if their mind has not progressed to the next stage.• If children are developed mentally ready to learn they will be interested in the topic if it is developed mentally appropriate.
Basic tendencies in thinking• Organization: Combining, arranging, re-combining, rearranging behaviors and thoughts into coherent systems.• Adaptation: Adjusting to the environment
So, what is a scheme?• Organized systems of action or thought that allow us to represent mentally or “think about” the objects and events in our world.• Basic building blocks of thinking.
So, what is a scheme?• Sucking through a straw• Recognizing a rose• Drinking• Categorizing plans
How do cognitive structures develop?Processes of adaptation: Assimilation andaccommodation Assimilation: The incorporation of new experience into existing structures. (FITTING) Accommodation: The changing of old structures so that new experiences can be processed. Assimilation is conservative Accommodation is progressive
What is this? Beringer-type sundial
What is this?
Equilibration Searching for a mental balance betweencognitive schemes and information from the environment.
DisequilibriumOut of balance state that occurs when a person realizes that his or her current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a situation.
Cognitive GrowthEquilibrium Harmony between one’s schemes and experienceAssimilation Tries to adapt to new experience by interpreting it in terms of existing schemesAccommodation Modifies existing schemes to better account for puzzling new experienceOrganization Rearranges existing schemes into new and more complex structures
Stages of cognitive development• Children periodically reach a point where their theories are wrong most of the time and so they must reorganize thinking about the social and physical worlds• Three reorganizations of theories lead to four stages of cognitive development• Piaget believed all children pass through stages in same order
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)Sensori (senses) Motor (actions,body movements)
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Sensing information and performing actions accordingly.• Unconscious, self-unaware, and non- symbolic cognition.• Basic motor reflexes: grasping, sucking, eye movements, orientation to sound etc.
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Object permanence: Realizing that objects in the environment exist whether the baby perceives them or not. 8 -12 months OUT OF SIGHT OUT OF MIND
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Object permanence Peekaboo Ce-eeee
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Goal directed actions: Deliberate actions towards a goal
Stage 1:Sensorimotor-Infancy (Birth to Age 2)• Education at this stage?
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)Early childhood to early elementary years Operation: An action carried out through logic. Preoperation: Before logical thinking processes
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Internalization of actions: Performing an action mentally rather than physically.• The ability to form symbols: Words, gestures, signs, images• Mental actions do not follow a pattern of logic
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Perceptual centration• Irreversibility• Egocentrism
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Perceptual centration: Tendency to focus only on one dimension of an action or issue and ignore other dimensions
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Irreversibility: Lack of ability thinking backwards or making use of actions or knowledge from the past.• Conservation: The amount or number of something remains the same of the arrangement or appearance is changed, as long as nothing is taken away.
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Egocentrism: Assuming that others experience the world the way you do.
Stage 2Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Collective monologue: Form of speech in which children in a group talk but do not really interact or communicate.
Stage 2 Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)• Use concrete props and visual aids whenever possible (pizza to demonstrate whole, one half, add and substract with sticks, rocks, colored chips)• Make instructions relatively short (Demonstrating of entering the class quietly, explain a game by acting out the parts, show examples of finished products)• Don’t expect them to see the world from someone else’s point of view (social problems)• Students may have different meanings for the same word (Ask children to explain the meaning of invented words.)• Give them a great deal of hands on experience (cut out letters to build words)• Provide wide range of experiences (taking field trips, invite story tellers to class)
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• Concrete operations: Mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations.• Hands-on thinking• Logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects.• Egocentric thought diminishes, operational thinking develops.
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• If/then thinking (if x happens then y happens)• Solving conservation problems (identity, compensation, reversibility)• Classification (put things in correct group based on a number of attributes)
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• Classifying objects by using size, shape, color, and other characteristics.• Seriation: Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, shape, weight, or volume. A<B<C
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)Not able to reason hypothetical, abstractproblems that involve the coordination of many factors at once.
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• Use concrete props and visual aids when dealing with sophisticated problems (e.g. time lines in history, diagrams of hierarchical relationships)• Give them a chance to manipulate and test objects (scientific experiments• Make presentations and readings brief and well organized (stories, short books)• Use familiar examples• Give opportunities to classify and group objects
Stage 3Concrete Operational Stage (7-11years)• How would you teach a child at this stage about human body?
Stage 4:Formal Operational Stage (11-15 yearsold)• Formal operations: Mental systems for controlling sets of variables and working through a set of possibilities.• Logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts.• What is to what might be. – How life would be different if people did not sleep?• Hypothetico-deductive reasonings. Inductive reasoning
Stage 4:Formal Operational Stage (11-15 yearsold)• Adolescent egocentrism: Assumption that everyone else shares one’s thoughts, feelings, and concerns.• Imaginary audience: The feeling that everyone is watching.
Stage 4: Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years old) “Everyone noticed that I wore this shirt twice this week”“The whole class thought my answer was dump” “No one else in this world can possibly understand how I feel”
Stage 4: Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years old)• What is the difference between egocentrism in young children and egocentrism in adolescents?
Stage 4:Formal Operational Stage (11-15 yearsold) Do we all reach the fourth stage?
Stage 4:Formal Operational Stage (11-15 yearsold)Helping students to build formal operations• Continue to use concrete-operational teaching strategy and materials (charts, illustrations)• Give students the opportunity to explore many hypothetical questions (position papers on social issues, economy, personal vision an utopia, describe earth after humans are extinct)• Give students opportunities to solve problems and reason scientifically (design experiments, debates)• Teach broad concepts ideas relevant to students’ lives (world history)
Applications of Piaget’s Theory for TeachersExamples?
Limitations of Piaget’s Theory for TeachersExamples?1. Underestimating young children’s cognitive abilities, overestimating older children’s cognitive abilities2. Overemphasizing the biological influence on cognitive development3. Not taking into account of the effect of the culture and social group on children.
Assignment for next week• For each stage, bring an example on how you would teach a child a topic in your field (e.g. an example of teaching numbers at preoperational stage, teaching algebra at concrete operational stage)