a way to encourage professors to think about developing tpack in using this frame in their own instruction. Using the TPACK framework to guide our research design, we developed an instrument with the purpose of measuring preservice teachers’ self-assessment of TPACKAssess the development of TPACK in an introductory preservice teacher technology course in a longitudinal research study that involves the use of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies.
Data is gathered at specific checkpoints during the preservice teachers’ preparation program. As part of this study, preservice teachers are tracked during their teacher education program and asked to complete the survey after completing their instructional technology course, methodology courses (e.g., literacy, science, social studies, mathematics) and after they complete student teaching. Additional qualitative research studies are also conducted to examine how these same preservice teachers demonstrate TPACK related tendencies in PreK-6 classrooms during practicum and student teaching experiences. We have currently completed the first steps in a three- to five-year, longitudinal research project by collecting the survey data from preservice teachers who took the technology course. These findings of preservice teacher classroom behavior will be compared to how they responded to the survey at various times during their preparation program. The goal will be to use what we observe in classrooms to validate the preservice teachers’ responses from the survey.
I will echo Ann’s words and it has been really a professional development actiivity for all of us, getting our heads around what TPACK means. I think what we are doing is, we are trying to get into that operationalizing period. Where now this is what they are saying and here is what it looks like. We wanted to know our thoughts on where we are going with this and our research plan. We do see this as longigutional and what we are looking for. When we developed this survey we were very clear on the audience and hopefully what we published and what we put publicly. We designed this specifically with our work with Michigan State
This survey approach will allow us to trace the development of TPACK throughout the program; sets a frame for developing TPACK throughout the teacher education program, emphasizing pedagogy and content as well
TPACK: AN EMERGING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TOOL FOR TEACHER EDUCATORS Ann Thompson Iowa State University
EvrimBaran Iowa State University Hsueh-Hua Chuang National Sun Yat-sen University
Outstanding Students from Turkey in My Research Program ISU Graduate Students SonmezPamuk Ismail Sahin EvrimBaran Visiting Scholars TurkanKarakus AyseGul Kara
Each winter, about 40 preservice teachers from Turkey join us for 6 weeks of student teaching Turkish Student Teachers at ISU
Strong influence and contributions from graduate students from Turkey Lasting collaborative ties Direct involvement with our TPACK work Professional and Personal Ties
Outline TPACK conceptual framework Examples TPACK Impact in research TPACK impact in practice
Technology Use in Schools Has Not Met Expectations “Although computers were available, teachers were not using them; and when they did, it was at an adoption stage of use, reinforcing basic skills.” Cuban, 2001
echno-centric Approach C T Limited or no connections to Pedagogy and Content P
Evidence of Techno-Centric Approach Early emphasis on the technology in isolation Computer labs, centers that are not integrated into the curriculum Separate computer classes
Can knowing a technology automatically lead to good teaching with technology? GAP CLASSROOMS WORKSHOPS Where skills are applied. Know how to teach with it. How and where skills are learned. Know how to use
TEACHING IS A COMPLEX ACTIVITY THAT DRAWS ON MANY KINDS OF KNOWLEDGE C P ontent edagogy T echnology
TEACHING IS A COMPLEX ACTIVITY THAT DRAWS ON MANY KINDS OF KNOWLEDGE C P Pedagogical Content Knowledge The ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge CONTEXT CONTEXT C P Technological Content Knowledge Technological Pedagogical Knowledge T CONTEXT CONTEXT
TPACK Examples Science Using probes for data collection Using spreadsheets for data analysis Behaving as a scientist Social Studies Using digital archives Creating digital, historical stories Foreign Language
Teachers Need Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Focus is no longer upon the technology TPACK provides a framework to think about teacher technology use and staff development in both higher education and K-12 environments The emphasis is on the intersection of technology, content and pedagogy
TPACK For Teacher Training and Professional Development C P T
TPACK Research First generation TPACK Second generation TPACK
WHY a Survey? Making it real/opening the conversation Efficient way to focus on preservice teacher development of TPACK over time Data for professors on individual classes Survey available at: http://tpack.org
TPACK Survey Developers Denise A. Schmidt, Evrim Baran, Ann Thompson Center for Technology in Learning and Teaching PunyaMishra, Matthew J. Koehler, Tae S. Shin
Research Context 3-credit, introduction to technology course (15 weeks) Required for elementary education and early childhood education majors Attend two, 1-hour lectures and one, 2-hour laboratory session every week
Current Research on TPACK Implementation of the survey in different educational contexts Survey translation to different languages Trace the development of TPACK throughout the program Set a frame for developing TPACK throughout the teacher education program, emphasizing pedagogy and content as well Begin PreK-6 classroom observations of preservice teachers’ TPACK
Minneapolis Public Schools (MPS): Professional Development through Technology (PDT2) Ohio University: Teacher’s Professional Development Brigham Young University, Utah Sam Houston State University, Texas Northern Arizona University: Mathematics for Elementary Teachers Syracuse University, New York University of Tennessee NorthCentral University, Arizona
University of Delhi Teacher Preparation program, India University of Southern Queensland, Australia University of the Punjab, Pakistan: TPACK of Elementary and ECE Pre-service teachers Sakarya University, Turkey: TPACK Survey Translation National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan Selcuk University, Konya
Technology Modeling Effects on In-service Early Childhood Teachers TPACK A Case in Taiwan
Purpose of the Study To examine the relationship between the degree of modeling technology used during the teacher preparation stage and the development of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) of early childhood teachers in Taiwan.
Methods Instrument: --Demographic section, --TPACK instrument was translated and adapted from Schmidt et al. (2009) survey instrument. -- the five items of modeling technology use by the teacher education faculty 1) the use of Information Technology (IT) hardware and software in teaching and learning, 2) the use of digital materials and multimedia educational software, 3) the use of online course platform, 4) the use of online assessment, and 5) the use of CMC tools to facilitate interactions among learners and instructors. Pilot Study A total of A total of 335 early childhood teachers took the final survey and the response rate is 86%.
Results Five modeling technology uses during the teacher preparation stage has a mean of 3.57 (SD=.74) on a five point likert scale Self-assessed TPACK and the extent of the five technology modeling uses during the teacher preparation stage was significantly correlated at the 0.01 level with the r ranging from .4 to .628 (Table 1) A summary of stepwise regression results -- two technology modeling uses were significant predictors of the TPACK measure (p <.001). a) the use of CMC (computer-mediated communication) tools such as email, blogs, web discussion forums to facilitate interactions among learners and b) instructors and the use of digital materials and multimedia educational software (Table 2)
Discussions and Conclusion This present study reinforced and validated the significance of the Research from Preparing Tomorrow Teaches to Use Technology (PT3) grant projects have proposed that modeling in technology use and integration in teacher preparation course has positive effects for the preservice teachers’ future use of technology in their professional career in K-12 schools (Adamy & Boulmetis, 2005; Casey & Casey, 2004). In addition, this study provides a useful approach for using TPACK survey research to examine approaches to technology integration.
TPACK AS A FRAME FOR DEVELOPMENT Development for teacher education Development in elementary, middle school and high school
Current Faculty Projects Content: One Room School House Technology: Second Life Pedagogy: Inquiry
http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net Teachers use basic activity types in their planning Activity types are different in different content areas Work to match technology with activity types in different content areas Judi Harris Work
TPACK as a frame for: Our Research Our Development Our Collective Progress tpack.org