Week 12 EDS 220TheoriticalandPracticalAspects EDS-220of Motivation Week Dr. EvrimBaran Dr. Evrim Baran
STOP & THINK• Why are you attending to this class?• Are you curious about motivation and interested in the topic?• Or you are here because of the upcoming final exam?• Do you need this course to get a good score in KPSS?• Maybe you believe that you will do well in this class, and that belief keeps you working.• Perhaps it is some combination of these factors?
What is motivation?• Internalstatethatarouses, directs, andmaintain sbehavior.• Beingableto do something. – Unmotivatedpersonhas nodrivingforcetoact. – Motivatedperson is activatedtoward a goal. – Energizes, directs, andsustaingbehavior
Howmotivationaffectslearningandbehavior ?• Directsbehaviortowardparticulargoals• Leadstoincreasedeffortandenergy• Increasesinitiation of andpersistence in activities• Affectscognitiveprocesses• Determineswhichconsequencesarereinforcing andpunishing• Enhancesperformance
List 10 factors in theexternalworld ofpeopleandsituationsthatmotivatey outhemost?
Instrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation• What happens between grades 3 and 9? – Intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation?– Importance of getting good grades for promotion, graduation, admissions focusing efforts to get higher point averages.
Extrinsic vs. InstrinsicMotivation Güneş has alwayslikedtowrite. Theclasswillhelp her get a scholarship atDeniz doesn’tenjoywritingand is theuniversity, but in addition, Güneştakingtheclassforonlyonereason: trulywantstobecome a betterwriter.Earning an A or B in Sheseesitsusefulnessforfutureprofessiontheclasswillhelp her earn a as a journalist.scholarship at theUniversity. Besides, she’slearningmanytechniquesfo rmakingwhatshewritesmorevividandeng aging.
Instrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation• Participation or • External event or completion of the “prize” is the task is the reward reward• Self-motivated: • Not motivated to Interested or complete a task curious about unless some furthering external item is knowledge received
Think!• How do peopleaffectyourmotivation?• Whatqualities in a personorrelationshipmakeyoureallywnattowor k hard on a project?• How do yourespondwhenotherpeoplearecounting on you?• Do youworkhardestwhenyouare a member of a winningteam?
THE MOTIVATİON TO LEARNTeachers’ concern is todevelop a particularkind of motivation in students.
Learners are most likely to show the beneficial effects of motivation when they are intrinsically motivated to engage in classroom activities.
Extrinsically motivated learners may have to be enticed or prodded, may process information only superficially, and are often interested in performing onlyeasy tasks and meeting classroom requirements.
Theoretical Perspectives of Motivation• Behaviorist: Influenced by experiences with the environment• Cognitive: Drive to understand• Humanistic: Connection to true purpose; authentic self
Behavioral Approach to Motivation• Analysis of incentives and rewards present in the classroom• If we are consistently reinforced for certain behaviors, we may develop habits and tendencies to act in certain ways. • Providing grades, starts, stickers, and reinforcers for learning. • Extrinsic means of incentives, rewards, and punishments
Limitations ofBehavioralApproacht Whatto do? oMotivation • Temporarychanges • Giverewardsaccordingt osomepredetermineds in behavior tandardof excellence – Whenthetask is • Materialisticattitu moderatelychallenging – Whenthereward is detowardslearning relativelylarge • Decrease in Or – Whenthetask is instrinsicmotivatio moderatelychallenging – Type of reward is n consistent.
Cognitive Approach to Motivation• People are active and curious, searching for information to solve personally relevant problems• Emphasize intrinsic motivation• Behavior is determined by our thinking, not simply by whether we have been rewarded or punished for the behavior in the past.
CognitiveApproachtoMotivationCreatedisequibilibriumtomotivatestudentswhofeeluncomfortablewith situations/issuesthey do not understand.
Attribution Theory• The theory that deals with how individuals’ explanations and justifications influence their motivation and behavior. – Locus: The location of the cause internal or external to the person – Stability: Whether the cause stays the same or changes – Responsibility: Whether the person can control the cause.
Attribution Theory• The theory that deals with how individuals’ explanations and justifications influence their motivation and behavior. – Internal and external locus is closely related to self-esteem.
Humanistic Approach to Motivation• Importance of personal freedom, self- determination, choice, striving for personal growth – Emphasizes intrinsic motivation.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs People are motivated by needs that we constantly strive to fulfillPeople must satisfy four deficiency needs before engaging in selfactualizing activities
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Fulfill needs from the bottom of the pyramid to the top• Lower needs are stronger, and therefore there is more urgency to fulfill them first• A person does not need to fully satisfy each level before they can move to the next… they can fulfill multiple levels of need simultaneously• Developmentally, physiological and safety needs appear earlier in life
Self actualization needs (need for self fulfillment) Growth or Aesthetic needs being (need for order, symmetry, harmony) needs Cognitive needs (need to know and understand) Esteem needs (respect, desire to achieve) Love and belonging needsDeficiency (acceptance and affection)needs Safety needs (nurturance, money) Physiological needs (food, air, water, shelter
Application of Maslow’s Theory to Education• Physiological- proper nutrition through breakfast and free or reduced lunch programs• Safety- behavioral guidelines for students, consequences for breaking the rules, zero tolerance policy for bullying, peer mediation, social workers and school counselors= advocates for troubled students• Belonginess& Love – educators need to be non- judgmental, fair, and empathetic; students need to feel that they can voice their opinions freely, teachers can provide specific praise, cooperative learning• Esteem- instructional scaffolding, challenging tasks, feedback, choices on assignments, praise
True or False?• I am part of, and loved by, my family. I have good relationships with my friends and colleagues - they accept me for who I am. Love and belonging needs
True or False?• Above mostly everything else, I actively seek beauty, form and balance in things around me. My interest in beautiful culture and the arts is central to me. Aesthetic needs
True or False?• My aim is self-knowledge and enlightenment. The most important thing to me is realizing my ultimate personal potential. I seek and welcome “peak‟ experiences. Self actualization needs
True or False?• I generally feel safe and secure - job, home, etc - and protected from harm. My life generally has routine and structure – long periods of uncontrollable chaos are rare or non-existent. Safety needs
True or False?• Aside from dieting and personal choice, I never starve through lack of food, nor lack of money to buy food. Aside from the usual trauma of moving house, I have no worry at all about having somewhere to live - I have „a roof over my head‟. Physiological needs
Views of Motivation Behavioral Humanistic CognitiveSource of Extrinsic Intrinsic IntrinsicmotivationImportant Reinforcers, Need for self- Beliefs,influences rewards, esteem, self- attributions incentives, fulfillment, for success and punishers and self- and failure, determination expectations
Basic Human Needs: Concept of ArousalWe need basic needs forstimulation—a need or arousal.
Experience!!!• For the next five minutes, you are going to be a student who has nothing to do. Remain exactly where you are, put your book, and cell phone aside, and do nothing.• Let’s see what happens.
Arousal• The need for arousal explains some things students do in class: – Why many students sometimes engage in off-task behaviors, e.g. passing notes, playing practical jokes boring lessons. – Students are most likely to stay on task when classroom activities keep them sufficiently aroused that they have little need to look elsewhere for stimulation.
MotivatingStudents• Self-fullfillingprophecy: Groundlessexpectationthat is confirmedbecause it is expected. – Teachers’ beliefsaboutstudentsabilities , skillsandbehaviorsbringabo utthebehaviorstheyexpect(P ygmalioneffect, teacherexpe ctancyeffect) – Sustainingexpectation: Whenstudentsshowsomeimp rovement but teachers do not changetheirexpectations.