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  • I am sure some of you already googled your name. I do it once a while and I believe that it is a critical exercise for us to be able to track out digitial activities. If you google mine, you will come across with these digital spaces where I interact. My personal webpage and social networks where I interact with my colleagues and other websites where I share resources on educational technology.
  • I also want to give you a quick background about my journey which took me to several spaces that shaped my research interests over time. This journey shaped my research interest on technology teacher education and online education through my experiences.
  • Higher education have embraced online education as an opportunity to meet diverse needs of students. The college 2020 predictrs that students will demand more online courses in near future. There are growing number of nontraditional students and working professionals. Instituions started making their course content publicly available. Stanford Artificalintellgigenmce course was offered free online and attracted 58 000 students around the world.
  • If you do another quick google search this time using the google images option with keywords teacher, technology, cartoon, you will see these kind of cartoos where teachers are represented as confused people who are having hard tim connecting to the learners of digital age. They are mostly in front of a blackboard, or traditional classroom tools or like in this one an online teacher having a nightmare with 736 new messages. These are really demonstating the way the relatinship between technology and teacher perceived in a society.Despite this rapid growth in the use of and demand for online technologues in higher eduication, distinct pedagogies for online learning have not yet emerged. Faculty may find it difficult to move something new when the patterns of behavior for success are not fully established.
  • Teaching online creates a tension in introducing a new activity into existing institutions with established roles. What is lacking in the online education literature is empirical research dedicated to investigating the pedagogical transformation of teachers as they move from face-to-face teaching to online teaching and establish the new patterns for online pedagogy.
  • The research has been limited in terms of bringing teachers’ voices into this process and addressing the complex educational needs of teachers in their unique online teaching contexts.
  • Teaching online requires the development of new skills and sets of pedagogiesThe growth in faculty involvement and acceptance has been modestLimited change in online pedagogiesTendency of carrying traditional approaches into the online environmentWhile the literature on online teacher roles and competencies recognized the importance of context in performing these functions, it was still limited in terms of sharing strategies for transforming teacher practices for online teaching and helping them understand and adapt to the new teaching environment. Furthermore, several researchers “addressed professional development and teacher education as adult learning” and considered “faculty development as potentially promoting transformational learning” (King, 2002, p. 286). However, the literature on online teacher roles and competencies is lacking the discussion on online teachers’ transformational learning, particularly strategies for facilitating their transformation as they move from face-to-face teaching to online teaching.
  • Often, these functionalistic views “downplay the importance of teacher agency in defining and shaping the terms of their experience” The role of the teacher in the creation of the content and values of such a program has also been lacking in the current literature. Hence, the regulation, certification, and standardization of teacher behavior is emphasized over creating the conditions for teachers to undertake the sensitive roles they might assume as active agentswho selectively produce and legitimate particular forms of knowledge and authority.
  • This researchis an effort to fill the void by researching the transformation of online teaching practice with a critical look at the current literature and an examination of the successful online teaching patterns in the higher education contexts.
  • Centrality of experience, critical reflection, and rational discourse (Taylor, 1998). The learner’s experience, being socially constructed or deconstructed, is central to transformative learning. It is through critical self-reflection that the learner questions “the integrity of assumptions and beliefs based on prior experience” and this act of reflection “is most essential for the transforming of our meaning structures—a perspective transformation” (Taylor, 1998, p. 16). Critical reflection is carried out in the medium of rational discourse “where experience is reflected upon and assumptions and beliefs are questioned, and where meaning schemes and meaning structures are ultimately transformed” (Taylor, 1998, pp. 17-18). This notion of looking at adult learning with a transformative learning perspective may help in framing our understanding of the teachers’ experience of online teaching and the continuous changes they experience as they move from face-to-face teaching to online teaching. It also enables us to view teachers as learners as they transform the meaning of structures related to teaching online through an “ongoing process of critical reflection, discourse, and acting on one’s beliefs” (Taylor, 1998, p. 19). Researchers explored the reflective practice drawing from transformative learning theory and suggested engaging teachers in pedagogical problem-solving and discovery about online teaching (Kreber & Kanuka, 2006). However, the literature on online teaching and learning is limited in terms of analyzing how ”reflective online teacher- practitioners will work from a deep knowledge base (which relates to both their expertise in the discipline per se and their knowledge of what is known about online learning) and make their discoveries public and peer reviewed” (Kreber & Kanuka, 2006, p. 122). If the potential of online learning is to be reached, there is a recognized need to understand online teachers’ transformative learning process as they become actively involved in pedagogical problem-solving in their teaching practices. This critical review aims to use transformative learning theory (Mezirow, 1991, 1995, 2000) to frame the critique on the literature that focus on competency- and role-based online teaching, and also propose an alternative view towards professional development of online teachers as adult learners.
  • Using transformative learning theory in the context of online teaching is grounded on three fundamental premises: (1) viewing online teachers as active adult learners, (2) recognizing that transformative learning occurs though critical reflection, and (3) considering that transformation happens as teachers conduct pedagogical inquiry with technology. The critical analysis included searching for the evidence of the existence or lack of these premises in the literature on online teacher roles and competencies.
  • Whileonline education has become more commonplace, little is known about what makes online teachers successful, and how they can transform to create successful online teaching practices. In order to build conceptual models for future studies as well as to identify strategies for supporting faculty who teach online, we need to explore what makes online teachers exemplary and successful in the higher education context. An in-depth qualitative case study exploring the context of a higher education institution’s different online teaching practices can illuminate such conceptual and pragmatic understandings.
  • In the present study, multiple-case study approach was followed. Using multiple cases allowed to compare similar and contrasting online teaching situations, and therefore helped draw more compelling and robust conclusions (Yin, 2009).This research study was conducted within a large research university in the Midwestern United States. As a first step, six online program coordinators and directors, who were leading or supporting online programs and online course offerings within the university colleges, were identified and contacted for an interview. Instead of giving them prior criteria for selecting these teachers, they were asked to tell us what their criteria for success were and how the nominated teachers met these criteria. The purpose was to bring out the success criteria that emerged from each online teaching context, examine their commonalities and differences, and use them for further analysis. From the three nominations provided by each online program coordinator, six teachers who were the first-ranked nominees were contacted for the interviews, and all of them agreed to participate in this study (See Table 1: Online teachers’ profiles). This initial analysis indicated four common success criteria used to nominate teachers across online teaching contexts. They were: (1) Knowledge of students, (2) knowledge of content, (3) effective communication with the students, and (4) high scores on the course evaluations.
  • The second phase of the analysis included the within-case analysis that allowed getting familiar with each case as a whole and generating a list of initial codes. During the cross-case analysis, we examined these codes in terms of their presence or absence from the cases. This helped to identify the similarities and differences across the cases as well as common themes (Miles & Huberman, 1994). The analysis indicated that while describing their teaching strategies, teachers often started with their concerns regarding the nature of online teaching and then presented the strategies they employed to overcome these challenges. Therefore, the codes emerging under the categories of concerns/challenges and teacher strategies were collapsed and formed the final themes. They were: (1) Knowing and creating the course content, (2) designing and structuring the online course, (3) knowing the students, (4) enhancing student-teacher relationships, (5) guiding student learning, (6) evaluating online courses, and (7) maintaining teacher presence. Table 3 presents these themes with related categories and emerging codes. These were a result of the within and cross-case analysis. As shown on Table 3, teachers suggested different strategies for meeting the challenges and addressing the concerns while teaching online. The data analysis was mainly conducted by this article’s first author with the participation of the co-authors, especially during the final stage of coding. The initial themes generated by the first author were then reviewed by the co-authors. Any disagreements or additional themes were discussed among the three authors, consensus was reached and adjustments were made accordingly.
  • Although each teacher had a unique online teaching context, the cross case analysis of the ethnographic interviews showed that their stories had common threads. The common threads were defined to be: (1) knowing and creating the course content; (2) designing and structuring the online course; (3) knowing the students; (4) enhancing teacher-student relationships; (5) guiding student learning; (6) evaluating online courses; and (7) maintaining teacher presence.Teachers interviewed employed exemplary practices in order to overcome the challenges and concerns related to teaching online. They also offered inventive and innovative solutions to overcome these challenges. We now consider each common thread in turn.
  • Changing online teacher roleRevisiting old assumptions on learning and teaching
  • free mobile appsdifferent science content domains such as biology, physics and chemistry Google search engine, iTunes Library, Diigo and Delicious100 Free Science and Math mobile apps (Biology, Physics, Math, Chemistry, Sensors, Everyday Apps, Foundational Science, Science Ethics, and General Science Teacher Apps containing two calculators and a units conversion app)
  • As more socially engaging mobile apps for science become available, the development of lesson plans, activities, handouts, and assessment methods for the social interactive and collaborative features of mobile platforms could help teachers integrate these features into their teaching practice.

CEIT Seminar Research Presentation CEIT Seminar Research Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • In search for knowledge:Making familiar unfamiliar and unfamiliar familiar Evrim Baran, Ph.D. Middle East Technical University Department of Educational Sciences
  • Digital Presence • www.evrimbaran.com • linkedin.com/in/evrimbaran • twitter.com/evrimb • diigo.com/user/evrimb • http://www.mendeley.com/evrim-baran • http://ubc.academia.edu/EvrimBaran
  • My path Founder, Instructional PhD, CIT & HCI Design Consulting Researcher Company 2002-2006 2006-2011 2011-2012 Assistant Professor, Curriculum and Instruction METU-C&I Instructor & Postdoctoral Fellow,Halici Informatics Researcher Curriculum and Pedagogy
  • What do we know?How do we know what we know?What can knowledge do?
  • Pedagogy Design Technology
  • What do we knowabout pedagogy, design, and technology?
  • Current State of Higher Education
  • Technocentric Images of Teachers Frame
  • Replication ofBecause of the unstable patterns traditional at the of online teaching teaching, organization, and classroom many online community levels,environments employedlearning practices are as the replication of traditional classroom environments, reinforcing the “status-quo” andthe “defensive strategy” in higher education Garrison & Anderson (2003)
  • “One size fits all”
  • What do weknow about teacherknowledge?
  • Tracing the Knowledge of Teaching 1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) 2. Successful Online Teaching in Higher Education 3. Development and Mobilization of Teacher Knowledge
  • Tracing the Knowledge of Teaching 1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) 2. Successful Online Teaching in Higher Education 3. Development and Mobilization of Teacher Knowledge
  • What knowledge teachers need to have in order to effectively integrate technology into learning environments? TPCK TPACK Total PACKage
  • Is it enough?
  • First Generation TPACK Research• The TPACK survey developed through a collaboration between Iowa State and Michigan Statetpack.org• Schmidt, D. A., Baran E., Thompson A. D., Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P. & Shin, T. (2009). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): The Development and Validation of an Assessment Instrument for Preservice Teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123-149.
  • Second Generation TPACK Research• Development and mobilization of TPACK throughout the teacher education program• Investigating “What does TPACK look like?” TPACK: Baran, E., Hsueh-Hua C. & Thompson, A. (2011). An emerging research and development tool for teacher educators. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(4), 370-377.
  • Tracing the Knowledge of Teaching 1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) 2. Successful Online Teaching in Higher Education 3. Development and Mobilization of Teacher Knowledge
  • Successful OnlineTeaching in Higher Education
  • What do we know?
  • Online teachers are generally assumed to takethe roles without resistance, rejection, and recreation (Rennert-Ariev, 2008)
  • Because of the unstable patterns of online teaching at the teaching, organization, and community levels, many online learning practices are employed as the replication oftraditional classroom environments, reinforcing the “status-quo” and the “defensive strategy” in higher education Garrison & Anderson (2003)
  • Roles Actualsuggested to teaching the faculty practices
  • Personal ExperienceOnline learner Online teacher Instructional designer
  • Dissertation OrganizationIntroduction Article 1: Transforming Online Teaching Practice: A Critical Analysis of the Online Teaching Literature Article 2: Tracing Successful Online Teaching in Higher Education: Voices of Exemplary Online Teachers Article 3: Implications for Practice: Supporting Online TeachersSynthesis and Recommendations
  • • Centrality of experience • Critical reflection • Rational discourse Mezirow (1991), Taylor (1998)• Transformative learning theory
  • The dimensions of online teachers’ transformational learning Baran, Correia, & Thompson (2011)
  • Critical review…Baran, E., Correia, A. P. & Thompson, A. (2011).Transforming online teaching practice: A criticalanalysis of the online teaching literature. DistanceEducation, 32(3), 421-439.
  • Tracing SuccessfulOnline Teachingin HigherEducation: Voicesof ExemplaryOnline Teachers
  • Multiple Case Study Linda Justin Robert Erin Molly HelenCollege Program • Art & Design • Liberal arts and sciences • Agricultural Engineering • Design • Political Science • Agriculture and life • Family and Consumer sciences Sciences Education • Engineering • Agronomy • Human Sciences • Classical studies
  • Data Collection• Semi-structured interviews with the online program coordinators (Pilot tested)• Faculty ethnographic interviews (Spradley, 1979) (Pilot tested)• Data Analysis – Case vignettes – Within case analysis – Cross case analysis
  • Emerging Codes and ThemesConcerns and Teaching ThemeChallenges Strategies Changing  Breaking the Knowing andcontent content into creating theorganization manageable course content Creating chunkscontent for new  Adopting theonline courses content from face-to-face courses  Getting student input in the course creation
  • Exemplary Practices: Challenges, Concerns and Solutions1. Knowing and creating the course content2. Designing and structuring the online course3. Knowing the students4. Enhancing teacher-student relationships5. Guiding student learning6. Evaluating online courses7. Sustaining teacher presence
  • Trustworthiness• Credibility (Rich data, member checking, triangulation)• Transferability (Contextual information, detailed description)• Confirmability (Researcher’s position, beliefs, and assumptions) Lincoln & Guba (1985)
  • Tracing successful online teaching in higher education• Baran, E., Correia, A. P. & Thompson, A. (In press). Tracing successful online teaching in higher education: Voices of exemplary online teachers. Teachers College Record.
  • Transformative LearningOnlineteacher Adult Learner
  • Reflective PracticeReflection in Reflectionaction on action
  • Implications for Practice: Supporting Online Teachers • Rewards Organization • Incentives • Recognition • Learning community Community • Peer-observation • Mentoring • Technology Teaching • Pedagogy • Content Levels of teacher support
  • • Baran, E., & Correia, A. (Under Review) What Motivates Exemplary Online Teachers?
  • Tracing the Knowledge of Teaching 1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) 2. Successful Online Teaching in Higher Education 3. Development and Mobilization of Teacher Knowledge
  • Developing and Mobilizing Knowledge of Model-based Teaching and Technology in Different Preservice Science Teacher Education Contexts• Project conducted with Dr. Samia Khan and Dr. David Burns at the University of British Columbia, Canada
  • What do we know about the impact of different contexts on preservice teachers’ knowledge and practice?
  • How do preservice science teachersdevelop and mobilize their knowledge of model based teaching with technology between varied teacher education contexts (university coursework, practica, community service learning)?
  • Integration of digital technologies into science and scientific inquiry Generate Evaluate T-GEM Modify Technology (T) integrated pedagogical framework
  • Course topics and technologiesT-GEM Topics Technologies exploredEnriching and enhancing students’ mental models ChemlandDoing research on students’ conceptual difficulties drawing upon Eric databasethe wealth of resources in research databasesGenerating and Evaluating relationships PhET NetLogoUsing concept mapping as a way to gain access to children’s’ models CMapsUsing technology to animate unobservable phenomena in science I-movie,Digital Images, SlowmotionUsing probes and movement to capture rate of change in chemistry, Datapro, Loggerphysics, and biologyCreating digital presentations for linear and divergent processes. Smartboard, Powerpoint (Pecha Kucha), PreziOrganizing content for learning on a content-management system Google SitesExploring the science and technology curricular connections of Pico Cricketsprogramming and robot technologyBuilding a low-cost multi-point interactive white board WiimoteGauging the cognitive and social affordances of various mobile apps Mobile Appsdesigned for learning science and developing an evaluation criteria
  • Teaching and learning contexts
  • Methodology/Data SourcesDesign based research / Multiple Case Study• Questionnaires (technology, teaching)• T-GEM design activities• Observations (eg. community and classroom)• Teacher debriefs• Teacher interviews• Course artifacts• Teacher reflections
  • Khan, S., Baran, E., & Burns, D. (Underreview). A Synthesis of the Research onCommunity Service Learning in PreserviceScience Teacher Education. Submitted toReview of Educational Research
  • Going Mobile – Opportunities for Teacher Education• Exploring the integration of mobile apps• Evaluating affordances of mobile apps for teaching and learning science• Challenges for integrating mobile apps into teaching practice.
  • Selecting the mobile apps to explore with teacher candidates Mobile Application Discipline iPod iPad iPhone Android Class Activity Touch Project Noah Biology     Outdoors Orbits HD Physics     Classroom station Exoplanet Physics     Classroom station Distant Suns Physics     Group Discovery Element Match Chemistry     Classroom station Chemical Touch (Lite) Chemistry     Classroom station Molsim Chemistry    Classroom station  AcceleroGauge Physics    Indoors  Experimenter Chemistry    Classroom station  Mitosis Biology    Classroom station  – Glogster: : tinyurl.com/freemobilescienceapps
  • Learning science outdoors and with Exploring mobile apps in a classroommobile devices stations activityMobilizing with our mobile devices A group gathering to explore the Sun andwithin buildings Constellations
  • Teacher candidates’ generated evaluation criteria Criteria Usability (Ease of use, appropriate level of difficulty Integration to curriculum (relevance and application with learning outcomes) Entertaining Engaging Usefulness for outdoors Clarity Relevance to real worlds Compatibility Content (repertoire) Extras
  • Main findings • Challenges – Lack of technology in schools (eg. lack of wifi) – Limited time to integrate technology with the constraints of current curriculum learning outcomes – Need to test technology out before using it in class (e.g. the notion of using an interactive white board is appealing however it is also daunting ) – Students’ lack of familiarity with technology – The need for constant student monitoring of students while using digital technologies – The need for developing lesson plans around technology to make it meaningful – The availability of technologies associated with teaching a specific topic in science – Getting lost in the technical aspect of digital technology integration
  • Mobile apps in learning• Interactive out of classroom experiences• Limited social interactivity (i.e. real time connection, collaboration, and social networking• Need to take greater advantage of mobility to foster mobile learning• Provide an assessment of learning• Supporting inquiry
  • Online reviews of apps– Develop criteria for the evaluation of mobile apps for the educational uses– Suggest criteria for evaluation in specific content areas (c.f. science)– Develop collaborative online platforms and databases– Provide ideas for new mobile apps that could potentially help produce usable applications.
  • • Baran, E., & Khan, S. (In press). Going Mobile – Science Teacher Candidates Evaluating Mobile Apps. In C. Miller & A. Doering (Eds), The New Landscape of Mobile Learning: Redesigning Education in an App-based World.
  • Tracing the Knowledge of Teaching 1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) 2. Successful Online Teaching in Higher Education 3. Development and Mobilization of Teacher Knowledge
  • Research Group• Technology in teacher education• Going mobile in teacher education• Online teaching with emerging technologies
  • Future Directions
  • • Baran, E. (In press). Öğretim Teknojilerinde Yeni Eğilimler ve Yaklaşımlar. In K. Çağıltay & Y. Göktaş (Eds), Öğretim Teknolojisinin Temelleri: Teoriler, Araştırmalar, Eğilimler.
  • Join us!• AERA Computer and Internet Applications Special Interest Group
  • To see a world in Hold infinity in thea grain of sand, palm of your hand,And a heaven in And eternity in ana wild flower hour William Blake, Auguries of Innocence
  • evrimb@gmail.com www.evrimbaran.comwww.twitter.com/evrimb Teşekkürler