WHAT IS ACCESSIBILITY?
Accessibility involves two key issues:
How users with disabilities access electronic information
How content designers, developers, and authors produce content that
functions with assistive devices used by individuals with disabilities.
Accessibility is not a feature, it’s about procedures, processes, and
THE IMPORTANCE OF BEST PRACTICES
There is NO Accessibility Button – Accessible Content Creation is a Process NOT a
Achieving Accessibility Requires Human Testing in addition to Automated
Checking Can Only Detect for the Presence or Lack of Required Items
Cannot Check if an Item is Correct or Appropriate
Accessibility is NOT a Feature, it’s a Result
THE ACCESSIBILITY BUSINESS CASE
• Government organizations are mandated to provide services to all citizens
regardless of their disabilities.
• Section 255 & 508, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, CVAA & State
• Higher Education & financial organisations have obligations under ADA
• Universal access to services
• Other organizations comply voluntarily or as a result of legal action.
• Landmark legal cases
• Self-service movement
• Corporate social responsibility
• Positive press
GLOBAL ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS IN 2006
Blue = Standards in effect
GLOBAL ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS IN 2013
Blue = Standards in effect or policy in development
Red = No standards
ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS ARE ALL ABOUT
End users have various disabilities.
Sensory – blindness, low-vision, color-deficient vision, deafness, hard-of-hearing,
Physical – various disabilities that result in varying degrees of dependence on the
Cognitive – users who perceive and process information differently or with
greater difficulty. Very diverse range of user needs within this group. Many
supports for blind users also benefit users in this group.
Users may have multiple disabilities (e.g. a deaf-blind user)
SCREEN READER DEMO
Demonstration: PSU Libraries home page with a screen reader.
SCREEN READER DEMO
WHERE YOU PROBABLY ARE RIGHT NOW
• You have a zillion documents
• That aren’t actually documents, but a bunch of fragments thrown together
• That 10 or 100 or 1000 or 10000 people can edit
• Of which you’re one of 3 who know what they’re doing
• You have a CMS
• Which came with templates you threw away
• Probably developed by a consulting firm
• And you don’t know what they did
• You have an accessibility problem
• And somebody probably told your CIO their tool can solve it
• Look at your top pages on your top sites
• Fix the most popular, most broken content
• Solve template problems first
• Minimize errors entering the system
• Train your users
• …just a little
• Establish standards for
• Give yourself some room
• Always focus on people
WHAT TO DO
• A set of technology agnostic Accessibility guidelines developed by
• Supported by non-normative documents
• Understanding WCAG 2.0
• Techniques for WCAG 2.0
• 3 levels of conformance: Level A, Level AA & Level AAA
• Level AA is realistic & widely used/accepted
• WCAG2 being used as basis of legislation
• Latest Section 508 updated draft in the US, Canada,
Australia, EU, etc
WEB CONTENT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES
When using software and web sites, users need equivalent and predictable access
to the interface, usually without relying on a mouse.
1. All tasks must be keyboard accessible, even if every method to accomplish a
task is not.
Whenever possible keyboard access should match OS conventions.
2. Complex interfaces need to provide means to easily move around, without
learning or performing multiple additional keystrokes.
3. Clear indication of focus location.
4. Some users rely on speech access which has similar dependencies on
accessibility API information.
WHAT DO USERS WITH PHYSICAL
When using software and web sites, blind users need information about the user
interface – both about where they are and clues and tools to access the rest of the
All requirements for keyboard users apply for blind users
1. Images need equivalent text
2. Controls need labels that clearly define purpose
3. Controls need to be correctly identified by role, with accurate state and value
4. Relationships present within the content or application needs to be clear
5. Correct reading order
6. Language needs to be correctly identified.
WHAT DO BLIND USERS NEED?
When using software and web sites, low-vision users need to be able to view
information in larger sizes.
As a user’s visual acuity decreases:
More reliant on supports offered for blind users
Less likely to be able to effectively use the mouse
1. The focus needs to be clearly visible and programmatically locatable.
2. Text needs to be resizable.
WHAT DO LOW-VISION USERS NEED?
When using software and web sites, users with color deficits need high-contrast
information and ideally the ability to modify the interface for further enhancements.
1. Support for OS high-contrast modes
2. Sufficient default color contrast (4.5:1) for all colored content
2. Focus caret
3. Instructions that don’t rely on color (e.g. click the red button)
WHAT DO COLOR-DEFICIENT USERS NEED?
When using software and web sites, deaf users need text in place of audio.
1. Closed captions for audio within video.
2. Transcript for audio not synchronized with video or other content.
3. Visual cues for audio alerts.
WHAT DO DEAF AND HARD-OF-HEARING
Many different types of cognitive disabilities, which makes defining specific criteria
Clear, straightforward layouts and form design always a good practice.
Some users will utilize assistive technologies which speak content and depend on
accessibility API information.
WHAT DO USERS WITH COGNITIVE
Rich Text Editor
• Install & configure the paraformat
plugin to enable formatting options.
• H1 through H6, lists, paragraphs, etc
• Also add any block level semantic
elements that are not available by
• Enables administrators to specify
additional HTML tags/attributes that
can be used by content authors
• Decide on the formats styles that content authors can use: paragraph, h1, h2,
• Then specify the paragraph formats available in drop-down list of RTE
• Formats can be added as nodes under the RTEPlugins/paraformat node
• Install the “Enable All RTE Features” Package
• Provides a default set of formats and styles that can be further configured
• Also adds a source edit mode for modifying resulting HTML
• Download the package from the support site:
• Provide meaningful alt text for static graphics & images used as
• Image component dialog box > Advanced image properties
tab > alt text
• If the image is decorative, use a space character in the alt text
field to inform screen readers to ignore the image
• For complex images such as pie charts:
• Provide a short explanation in alt text
• Provide more detailed information in description field
PROVIDING TEXT ALTERNATIVES
• Advanced Image Properties dialog
PROVIDING TEXT ALTERNATIVES
• Use appropriate structural element for your
page content in the Rich TextEditor
• <p> for paragraphs, <ul> or <ol> for lists, etc
• <strong> or <em> for bold and emphasised
• Use format menu in RTE to pick correct
APPROPRIATE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
• Create structure to your web pages by adding section headings
• If RTE Features Package is installed, H1, H2 & H3 are already available (Refer to
• Additional heading levels (H4 through H6 can be configured by administrators
(Refer to Slide 20)
• Correctly nested headings help screen reader users navigate content easily
• Do not use headings to provide simple emphasis, use <strong> or <em>
• All 3 HTML list types are supported:
• Ordered, unordered & definition lists
• Select the list type from the format menu
• Using lists correctly provides additional navigation capabilities for screen reader
• Tables of data must be identified using HTML table elements:
• One <table> element
• A <tr> element for each row of the table
• A <th> element for each row and column heading
• A <td> element for every data cell
• A <caption> element to display a visible caption for the
• A <summary> element to provide a synopsis of the table for
• <summary> is not visually displayed
• The scope attribute of <th> can be used to indicate that the
cell is a header for a particular row or column
• For complex tables, header and id attributes need to be
used for explicit associations
• Insert table in the Rich Text Editor
• Select the type of headers:
• Top for column headers, left for
rows or both
• Create or edit header cells by opening
context menu > cell properties dialog
USING TABLES (CONTINUED)
• Provide a meaningful page title for all HTML pages
• Specify the title when creating a new HTML page
• Edit the page title in the page properties dialog
• All form fields need to have meaningful labels
• To edit the default label “title” for a form component:
• Open field properties for that component
• Edit the label (Title) in the Title & Text tab
• Label (Title) can be hidden but only do this if absolutely necessary
• Most screen readers announce hidden labels
• For ImageButton components, modifying title modifies the alt text
LABELS FOR FORM FIELDS
• Bad example of link text:
• click here for details of our evening classes for autumn 2010.
• Good example:
• Evening classes for autumn 2010 – details.
• Screen readers can display list of links in a page for users to navigate
• Title attribute may be used for providing extra instructions
• Use of title attribute is not recommended because:
• Text in title attribute is only available to mouse users
• Assistive Technology support is inconsistent – title attribute recognition
may be turned off by default
LINK PURPOSE AND CONTEXT
• Adobe Accessibility Resource Center
• Adobe Accessibility Blog
• Producing Accessible Sites and Applications using AEM: