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IL #2 / IL #3Representation vs. Authoritarian Governments Emma Vockeroth
Parliamentary Democracy Elected Executive Branch(Prime Minister and Cabinet) Works in partnership and needs the support of Elected Legislative Branch(elected MP’s and House of Commons) Without a confidence vote from parliament results in government resignation or an election Member of Parliaments represent an electorate(public voters) Legislative Branch (House of Commons and Senate) create laws Governor General is a member of the Executive and Legislative Branch Senators represent regions, not the entire population, and provides a sober 2nd thought to the decisions and ideas from the Executive and Legislative Branches Also known as a responsible government. Eg. Canada (Current) Embraces Principles of Liberalism: (ALL)Rule of Law, Self-Interest, Individual Rights and Freedom, Competition, Private Property, Economic Freedom
Republican Democracy People are sovereign (no King or Queen). Legislative Branch composed of Congress(House of Representatives and Senate). Number of representatives reflects the states’ populations (435 total- serve 2 year terms). Every state has 2 senators; 6 year terms, though approximately 1/3 of senators are elected every 2 years. New laws must be passed by both the House of Representatives and the Senate, then approved by the President. Presidential veto may be defeated by 2/3 majority in both houses of Congress. Eg. USA (Current) Embraces Principles of Liberalism: Rule of Law, Self-Interest, Individual Rights and Freedom, Private Property, Economic Freedom, Economic Competition. Political competition however is limited, because there are only two parties and it is nearly impossible for another party to win an election.
Proportional Representation Citizens vote for a party rather than directly for a particular candidate. Often results in a coalition(2 or more parties working together to run the government). Marginal and minority parties seem to gain more representation in this form of democracy Eg. Sweden (Current) Embraces Principles of Liberalism: Rule of Law, Self-Interest, Individual Rights and Freedom, Private Property, Economic Freedom, Competition
Authoritarian An “elite” leader – may not govern in the interests of people. Leader controls the message and information the population receives and their participation. The idea is to convince people that they are contributing to the ideologies of the country and supporting the government. In order to direct the discontent of the public, the government often scapegoats and focuses people’s negative energy onto an issue or other person to avoid their questioning of the government. The government makes people afraid to oppose the them by implementing tactics to punish dissidents. They may or may not be subtle, and can be quick, brutal, and violent. It makes for quick learning of consequences of acting or thinking differently than the government. Eg. China (1949-1976) Embraces Principles of Liberalism: Rule of law, Self Interest (of the government) Rejects Principles of Liberalism: Individual Rights and Freedoms, Competition, Economic Freedom, Private Property
Oligarchy Political power held by a small elite group which is usually a politically powerful family. Some also theorize that all forms of government will eventually become oligarchies. (Eg. USA with its history alternating between the Bush-Clinton families). Eg. Russian Federation because of the influence carried by members of the former communist party. (Current) Embraces Principles of Liberalism: Economic Freedom, Private Property, Individual Rights and Freedoms, Rule of Law Rejects Principles of Liberalism: Competition limited within the government.
One-Party States One party forms the government. Other parties are not permitted to participate in “elections”. May be more than 1 candidate, though other candidates represent the same party. Emphasize unity, strength, and community through one party, rather than discrepancies and differences in multi-party democracies. Since there are no opposing parties it is easy to override previous laws and constitutions. Eg. Cuba (Current) Embraces Principles of Liberalism: Rule of Law, Individual Rights and Freedoms (as long as individuals support the leading party), Rejects Principles of Liberalism: Economic Freedom, Private Property, Competition
Military Dictatorships Military leadership holds the power of the country. May be official (where the military declares their intent to govern), or unofficial (where the military privately exerts power over the president, for example). Generally established violently by overthrowing the current government Often justified as an attempt to stabilize national politics or rescue the nation from dangerous ideologies. (Eg. Accusations made on the President). Must be forced out, don’t often give up power Rarely considered a legitimate form of government by the international community and is becoming increasingly rare. Eg. Pakistan (1999) Embraces Principles of Liberalism: Rejects Principles of Liberalism:
Absolute Monarchy Government power is held by a monarch (Eg. King, Emperor, Czar). Sometimes monarch’s are elected but usually are past according to bloodlines. Has total authority over government and civil matters without the consult of a Legislative Branch or other parties or figures. Eg. Saudi Arabia (Current) Embraces Principles of Liberalism: Rule of Law, Self-Interest(of the government). Rejects Principles of Liberalism: Economic Freedom, Private Property, Individual Rights and Freedoms, Competition
What form of democracy do you believe would best serve the interest of Canadians? Proportional Representation Values of the party rather than one individual, not everyone may be a fan of the individual. Best way for us to give people the power, which is the Greek translation of democracy. It’s the best opportunity for us to choose representatives to sit in parliament and make laws and implement the changes we want as a population