Emotional Intelligence


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  • The intelligence test was a primary step in the development of the applied branches of psychology. Educational psychologists stimulated the applied nature of educational psychology by using the intelligence test as a way to help them group children to make teaching more effective. Personnel managers saw the intelligence test as a way to keep less efficient and effective workers off the payroll. To the 19th Century psychologist, intellectual ability was an intriguing research possibility. The idea that there may be individual variations in ability or that the focus of teaching should be learning weren’t yet developed. In 1904, the French Minister of Public Instruction became concerned about the children in Parisian schools who were unable to profit from the given instruction. He wanted to devise a plan to develop schools for such children but needed a method to identify them. Alfred Binet, a psychologist studying individual differences and mental abilities, produced a list of thirty tasks, in a range of difficulty, normed the tasks and thus developed the first of the recognized standardized intelligence tests. Subsequent tests and subsequent developments drew in to “intelligence” a variety of additional factors: creativity, environment, heredity, social stimulation, age, and personality factors. It was the Army which caused intelligence testing to come to the public eye--through its intelligence testing of soldiers. The term, “IQ” became an accepted popular term and again spurred on the development of the various branches of applied psychology.
  • Phineas Gage lived during the 1840’s. He was a bright, social person. He was well balanced and even shrewd. Energetic and persistent, too. Then he had an accident where an iron bar went through his head. He seemed to recover fully and actually returned to work. At that time, physicians argued that most of the human brain was filler, so they thought Phineas had healed when the wound healed.
  • Based on Goleman’s book (1995), Emotional IntelligenceDaniel Goleman is a writer; not a researcher. As a writer he had the gift of explaining the research to others. He is also a psychologist.
  • George Soros (Chairman of Soros Fund Management) – Recognized that a back ache meant to sell stock even before he was conscious of itHoward Gardner – We spend too much time and energy trying to remedy our weakness rather than building on our strengths
  • Andrew Grove – CEO of Intel took personal responsibility for their failure in the 1980’sJ.K. Rowling – Harry Potter was rejected by first 10 publishers
  • Over time these will impact cardiovascular disease, the progression of diabetes; influence cancer onset or progression. Anxiety and cardiovascular disease predict subsequent cardiac events, the onset of hypertension, and even sudden death from fatal MI’s. Stress management reduces that risk and psychological intervention can make a difference. Having good emotional health influences good physical health.
  • Aaron Feuersteing – Fire burned Polartec factory – personally paid 2,000 workers salary for 3 monthsEstee lauder ‘ “Gift with purchase”
  • Jack Welch – CEO of GE knew over 1,000 employees namesCaptain Ernest Shackleton – “The Endurance” 600 days in the wilderness – developed strategies for keeping the men busy and optimisticGordon Bethune – CEO took all employees out and burned all manualsTwo sisters fought over an orange – cut it in half only to find out one wanted the rind and the other inside
  • Example - make criticism constructive
  • Recent research explores abuse-driven brain changes. In the relation between early abuse and dysfunction of the limbic system; Patients with abuse scored higher on a temporal lob epilepsy-related symptoms checklist; patients with sexual abuse scored significantly higher yet. Maltreatment before age 18 has more impact than later abuse; males and females were similarly affected.
  • Don’t interpret “dysfunction” too clinically. Many of the items on the list represent our daily challenges. The message is, when any or several of these exceed our capacity for acceptable behavior we need help. At that point, too, we would be the last person to recognize the problem. It is therefore important for supervisors and trusted coworkers to recognize the behaviors associated with “going overboard”.
  • Emotional Intelligence

    1. 1. Emotional Intelligence “Emotional Intelligence sets apart good leaders” Michael Everett, PhD
    2. 2. What is Intelligence?  Typically focused on • analytic reasoning • verbal skills • spatial ability • attention • memory • judgment  Murky concept with definitions by many experts...
    3. 3. One Definition  Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought… Concepts of intelligence are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Neisser et al, 1996.
    4. 4. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)  A weak predictor for • • • achievement job performance success overall success, wealth, & happiness  Accounts for 20-25% of employment success according to numbers of studies covering career statistics
    5. 5. More potent predictors of career success are  Ability to handle frustrations  Manage own emotions  Manage own social skills
    6. 6. How we historically viewed emotions? • chaotic • haphazard • superfluous • incompatible with reason • disorganized • largely visceral • resulting from the lack of effective adjustment
    7. 7. How we now view emotions? • Arouse, sustain, direct activity • Part of the total economy of living organisms • Not in opposition to intelligence • Themselves a higher order of intelligence Phineas Gage
    8. 8. Frontal lobe and parietal lobe are part of the “new brain” Amygdala is deep within the most elemental parts of the brain.
    9. 9. The main purpose of the inner most part of the brain is survival.  Signaling function (“Fight or Flight”)  Promote unique, stereotypical patterns of physiological change  Provide strong impulse to take action
    10. 10. Basic Emotions--presumed to be hard wired and physiologically distinctive  Joy  Surprise  Sadness  Anger  Disgust  Fear
    11. 11. Evolutionary Advantage to Emotion  For example:  Fight or flight response • can basic emotions overwhelm rational thinking?
    12. 12. Neurobiology of Rationality  Antonio Damasio, in Descartes’ Error, asserts that concerted activity at all levels of the cortex assist rational decision making.  Emotion is emerging as anessential contributor to rational decision making  Work like his underlies the concepts of emotional intelligence  Is there a separation between rationale and emotional thoughts?
    13. 13. What is Emotional Intelligence? Refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well on ourselves and our relationships” (Goleman, 1998)
    14. 14. History of EI  Howard Gardner’s “Frames of Mind”  Verbal/linguistic  Logical/mathematical  Visual/spatial  Musical  Bodily/Kinesthetic  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal
    15. 15. Importance of EI  National US Department of Labor survey: Corporations are increasingly listing emotional competencies as criteria for new hires  Graduate Management Admissions Council: More companies seeking MBAs with emotional intelligence
    16. 16. Importance of EI  Center for Creative leadership study: Rigidity, poor relationships and the inability to lead teams are the most common traits of executives who fail  EgonZehnder study: Managers who failed all had high levels of expertise and intelligence but many were arrogant and had a disdain for team work
    17. 17. Importance of EI  Longitudinal study of Harvard graduates found that test scores on entrance exam did not predict success  Hay McBer’s global study, including Pepsi, IBM, and Volvo found that 2/3 of the competencies deemed essential to success were emotional based  Goleman analysis of 181 jobs in 121 organizations found that emotional competencies were the best differentiators between excellent and average performers
    18. 18. Two Realms of EI  According to Goleman (1998) . . .  Personal Competence  Intrapersonal intelligence  Social Competence  Interpersonal intelligence
    19. 19. 5 Components of EI  Self-Awareness  Self-Regulation  Self-Motivation  Social Awareness  Social Skills
    20. 20. Self-Awareness  Emotional Awareness  Recognizing one’s emotions and their effects  Accurate self assessment  Knowing one’s strengths and limits = strength  Self-efficacy  Belief on one’s ability to accomplish tasks
    21. 21. Value of Self-Awareness  to recognize appropriate body cues and emotions  to label cues and emotions accurately  to stay open to unpleasant as well as pleasant emotions  Includes the capacity for experiencing and recognizing multiple and conflicting emotions
    22. 22. Self-Regulation  Self-Control  The Marshmallow Study  Transparency  Maintaining integrity; acting congruently with one’s values  Achievement orientation  Striving to improve  Initiative  Readiness to act on opportunities  Optimism  Persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks
    23. 23. Reality of Self-Regulation  EI is like a smoke alarm--we’re not good at influencing whether a particular emotion will arise. EI tells us something is arising.  We do have tremendous individual variability in the degree to which we can consciously limit the duration of unpleasant emotions and the degree of influence over the behaviors which may arise.
    24. 24. Lack of Self-Regulation  Impair reasoning (even smart people sometimes act stupidly)  May increase the likelihood that chronic emotional problems will result, (e.g., clinical depression or chronic anxiety or hostility)
    25. 25. Social Awareness  Empathy  Sensing other’s feeling and perspectives, and taking active interest in their concerns  Organizational Awareness  Reading a group’s emotional currents and power relationships  Service Orientation  Anticipating, recognizing, and meeting customers'’ or clients’ needs
    26. 26. Social Skills  Developing Others   Inspirational Leadership   Having impact on others and wielding effective tactics of persuasion Conflict Management   Initiating or managing change Influence   Inspiring and guiding individuals and groups Change Catalyst   Sensing other’s development needs and bolstering their abilities Negotiating and resolving disagreements Teamwork and Collaboration  Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals
    27. 27. The art of social relationships-managing emotions in others  To excel at people skills means having and using the competencies to be an effective friend, negotiator, leader and follower.  One should be able to guide an interaction, inspire others, make others comfortable in social situations, and influence and persuade others.
    28. 28. The subtle and complex abilities which under lie people skills  Being attuned to others’ emotions  Promoting comfort in others through the proper use of display rules  Using own emotional display to establish a sense of rapport  Empathy can be faked; so can other emotions
    29. 29. Beware of being to nice  Have you ever met a nice person, but the “bells have gone off?”  Charisma draws in but not always to desired ends, e.g., Hitler, Jim Jones.  “The dark side of charismatic leaders”
    30. 30. Developing Emotional Intelligence  We develop external strategies first  Then we develop social strategies  Girls do better at developing strategies overall  As a person matures, emotions begin to shape and improve thinking by directing a person’s attention to important changes
    31. 31. Developing Emotional Intelligence  A genetic contribution is likely  They are not destiny (timidity)  Early expression of emotion by parents helps learning  Early abuse hinders learning  Poor ability to read others’ emotion may lead to the development of poor social skills.  “Lie to Me” based on the work of Dr. Paul Ekman
    32. 32. Gender Differences Males More willing to compromise social connectedness for independence Not as good as women at this Less adept than women overall More physiologically overwhelmed by marital conflict Females Greater need for connectedness Have a wider range of emotions Better at reading emotions Better at developing social strategies overall
    33. 33. Emotion related dysfunction  All or nothing thinking  Overgeneralization  Excessive worrying  Disqualifying the positive  Jump to negative conclusions  Labeling & mislabeling  Personalization  Critical; contempt
    34. 34. Impacts on physical health  cardiovascular disease  progression of diabetes  progression of cancer  onset of hypertension
    35. 35. Importance of EI in Organizations  The higher up the organization the higher EI is required  Army Values • • • • • • • Leadership Duty Respect Selfless service Honor Integrity Personal courage
    36. 36. Importance of EI in Organizations  50% of work satisfaction is determined by the relationship a worker has with… his/her boss.  EI is a prerequisite for effective leadership across borders. • Requires a high level of self-mastery and people skills; ability to put yourself into the positions of others.
    37. 37. Developing Emotional Intelligence  “Gut feeling” can be used to effectively guide decisions--a neurological understanding of how unconscious and conscious gut feelings guide decisions, e.g., when prioritizing, emotions help move the decisions.  Harness emotions to promote or hinder motivation. (Anxiety, hostility, sadness)  Empathy is the ability to recognize another’s emotional state, which is very similar to what you are experiencing.
    38. 38. Developing Emotional Intelligence  Take time for mindfulness  Recognize and name emotions  ID the causes of feelings  Differentiate having the emotion and doing something about it  Learn optimism to challenge distortion  Learn distraction techniques  Listen to voice of experience  Develop Listening skills
    39. 39. The Future of EI  It will be increasingly important • More need for team-based collaboration across organizations, geography, and cultures • Will used more frequently in the selection, assessment, training and development of employees • Continued development of theories and measurement tools