Central Bicol State University of Agriculture
San Jose, Pili, Camarines Sur
“Contribution of Agroforestry in the
Of some selected Barangays in
Bula, Camarines Sur”
Mr. Edgar B. Baesa
Agroforestry management is an essential component in the production of food and or services
in the uplands to sustain their needs and uplift their socioeconomic conditions (Balla,
2010). In terms of providing livelihood among households, the technology had been proven
by the other farmers who adopted agroforestry.They can afford to pay for the education of
their family and wards, have the amenities and can afford medical treatment for the family
(Baoteng, 2011). Furthermore, the technology increases income levels of farmers because
the design has multi-cropping system. Farmers may reduce the risk of failing on cash crops
if pest or diseases occur because of other crop to harvest and livestock integration provide
other source of income for farmers being one of the components of the technology.
Meanwhile, traditional monoculture cropping, applying excessive synthetic fertilizer and
cutting of trees in the farm may cause degradation of soil nutrients and other irreversible
damage in the soil. On the other hand, agroforestry system provides a way of cultivating
the land with no harmful effect on the environment, thus, conservation occur
Woody perennials are still dominant in Bula area where some of them are devoted for timber
purposes.The Barangays LaVictoria, Bagoladio and Inoyonan from the municipality of
Bula were selected because they are sloped land cultivated as farmland by the farmers
whose livelihoods are mostly from farming where they get their source of food and cash.
The primary products in the study area are copra, fruits and vegetables. Their activities include
the making of broom stick, hauling firewood, making furniture, etc. Climate change is one
of the factors affecting their harvest. Sustainable farm system operations and
management is lacking in the area, hence, this study.
Objectives of the study
The main objective of the study was to gain knowledge and gather
informations about the benefits of agroforestry practices in the
livelihoods of farmers in Barangays LaVictoria, Bagoladio and
Inoyonan of Bula, Camarines Sur;
Specially, the study has the following objectives:
1.)To know the socioeconomic profile of some selected Barangays in
2.)To determine the number of households practicing agroforestry
system in some selected Barangays in Bula.
3.)To identify factors that contributes to the adoption of agroforestry
practices in Bula.
4.)To determine the impacts of agroforestry in the livelihoods of
some selected Barangays in Bula.
5.)To determines agroforestry system adopted by the farmers in the
6.)To formulate suggestion and recommendations that will improve
the livelihood in Bula, Camarines Sur.
Importance of the study
This study is very important for at least three (3) important entities:
1.)To the farmers - It provides insights into contribution of
agroforestry to the livelihood ds of large and marginal farmers.
2.)To the environment - Foremost reason why agroforestry contains
an essential contribution to environment is because woody
components existing in farmland served as shelterbelt for different
species which naturally exists like birds, insects, snakes, wildcats,
etc. and it also balances the climatic condition of land farm where
trees serves as shades and wind breaks.
3.)To the researchers - It provides further information about the
contributions of agroforestry for the livelihoods in rural community
on how to elevate the socioeconomic and themselves as well. For
the same study obtaining this case, where researcher could get
some reviews of related literature and insights to formulate their
methodology and instruments of gathering data.
Scope and limitations of the study
The researcher focused only to the determination of
responses that is set in the objectives of the study
and shall not cover issues beyond its scope. The
study was limited only in its specific locale covering
Barangays Inoyonan, LaVictoria, and Bagoladio in
Bula, Camarines Sur.The study was only limited on
the use of survey questionnaire regarding the issues
that the researcher wishes to address.
Agroforestry - the system of planting crops, livestock keeping and establishment of woody
components that provide the needs of households and in sustaining their livelihoods.
Livelihood - this could mean the day to day socioeconomic status of the respondents
concerning their ability to meet individual family and other social needs.
Farmland - this is the area where crops and livestock are raised for economic purposes of
Socioeconomic-this involves social and economic factors of the respondents including
activities from the agroforestry system that help meet the day to day needs of their family.
Biodiversity - a degree of variation of life forms with in the study area such as birds, insects,
snakes, wildcats, etc.
Shelterbelt - it is where the life forms used forest or tree components as a natural habitat in
the study area.
Forest-based - it is the management of growing agricultural crops with existing tree species
as major existing crops.
Intervention - courses of action to mitigate existing conditions on the livelihoods of
households adopting agroforestry system.
Marginal - limited or restricted situation of the study area affecting the economic
productivity of the respondents.
Conservation - practices of the respondents in protecting, preserving, managing, and
restoring soil and land resources for the sustainable productivity.
Problems - hindrance and obstacles encountered that limits the study.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Socioeconomic of rural households
Agroforestry system, according to Balla (2010) supplies fodder, fuel, wood,
timber and fruits that helped improved the socioeconomic of rural
households. According to him, in order to uplift the socioeconomic
conditions of rural livelihoods and tribal community, there is a need to
developed site specific agroforestry system (tribal means the community
of people in a limited situation of their productivity of economy).This is
supported by Malik, et. al. (2007) who said that agroforestry system such
as agri-silvi, agri-horti-silvi, agri-silvi-pasture, silvi-pasture, agri-horti-
pasture system are effective way to fill their needs because households
generate self employment and earn cash uplifting their mental, social and
economic status in the community. Furthermore, Baoteng (2011) attested
that practitioners of agroforestry system increased their socioeconomic
levels, improve household security, can afford to pay for children and
wards, have amenities and can afford medical treatment for household
members. In addition, Richard, et. al. (2010) stated that the adoption of
agroforestry help diminished the suffering of poor peasants (farmers).
Figure 1. Products from the agroforestry farms
According to Richard, et. al. (2010) there is always a
chance of moving away from poverty by cultivating the
land using agroforestry system. Converting the land
into agroforestry management could provide sustaining
needs of households in terms of food and cash. Because
agroforestry system provide an essential elements and
diversification of resources where farmers has an option
and chances in generating income.
Meanwhile, Kizito, et. al. (2009) stated that the NGOs’
interventions play vital roles in supporting those local
communities in adopting technologies such as
agroforestry, especially in a form of support such as the
provision of seeds, fertilizers and especially in giving
training program for the livelihood of (CF) conservation
farmers to establish the missing blocks needed by the
Opportunities and income
To build income generating activities in the farm, farmers need to make
investment capital.According to Seatle, et. al. (2007) households’
investment include farm maintenance, labor, transportation, tools, to
make the cost of their land higher in terms of its capability to produce the
needed output .
Tenth FiveYear Plan (2009) concluded that in order to reduce incidence of
poverty, consideration of households on their specific strategies to
improve their productivity in the farm should be well established and
agroforestry system should be considered to generate higher productivity
and income levels. Furthermore, DI Lalisa (2010) stated that integrated
management of the land by using agro forestry is a good tool in reducing
poverty.The component of the system producing wood products
minimized forest encroachment and livestock keeping on the farmland
According to M. Buyinza (2009) since agroforestry contributes significantly
to households’ livelihood, farmers doing agroforestry are advised to
mobilize themselves into groups to access agroforestry extension services
that promote its adoption. If organized the question of land tenure could
be resolved so as to enhance formulation of a good land use policy where
farmers can be guaranteed security of their land hence encourage or
promote adoption of both short and long term agroforestry practices.
Delivery of environmental benefits
Agroforestry products are the most explicit value that
could be sold for a profit. According to Anna Laakso
(2006) households produce litter materials and other
forest residues that serve as organic materials for
fertilizer to have good harvest of crops. Other benefits
of trees such as shades, windbreaks to which it
regulates climatic conditions, live fence and firewood as
source of energy. Furthermore, Leonida (2006)
concluded that changes are expected in socio economic
conditions as well as issues on sustainability if a farmer
adheres to the adoption of agroforestry practices.
Among these, the promotion of Biotechnology and
integrated pest management instead of using synthetic
pest control measures, the use of indigenous tree
species to improve the productivity of the soil that
delivers benefits to the environment.
The conceptual framework of the study
The conceptual framework is shown in figure 1. A simple
concept that says practicing agroforestry contributes
positive impacts to the overall livelihoods of the
community. Agroforestry practices then may provide
essential generating income activities from the
products and services that provide better condition to
the community and in return helped enhance the use of
technology. The concept also demonstrate the
synergistic approach which gives impact to both the
giver and the receiver. Aagroforestry practice improves
livelihood income of communities while in exchange
communities adopt a more sustainable eco-friendly
farm system operations that benefits not only the
involved household but the whole component of the
entire agri-socio-ecological system.
Locale of the study
The terrain of some selected Barangays in Bula ranges from flat rolling, steep to moderate
steep, an average elevation of 17 meters above mean sea level with a latitude of 13.47(13
0210N) and a longitude of 123.27o
Generally, Bula,Camarines Sur soils is loamy clay.The project area is of clay loam type with
depth ranging from 40cm. to 80cm.Soil pH ranges from 6.0-6.8.
The climate is aType II-climate where there is no dry season with a very pronounced rainfall
from November to February.Average annual rainfall is 55 mm.Planting season start from
June to October.
The study area are generally planted with agricultural crops like coconut, bamboo, banana
and abaca, intercropped with ipil-ipil, fruit trees and other root crops. Forest trees
(Gemelina, Ipil-ipil, Mango, Mahogany, Narra, Acacia) and (Acacia ariculiformis) are found in
the different farm lots in the study area. Open lands not utilize during planting season or
other parcel which is not use for cultivation for planting crops are used for grazing purposes.
Low and upland rice was also found in the study area.
There are 5 units’ spring boxes in Inoyonan, 4 units of spring boxes in bagoladio and La
Victoria, and 2 natural springs. And 5 pump in the Barangay LaVictoria and Bagoladio, 4
pumps in Inoyonan.The 1 unit of spring box is financed by the LGU’s and barangay officials
for the continuous supply of water to the residence of Bagoladio.
This chapter presents the detailed description of the respondents of the
study, the research instrument, sample population, sampling procedures
and analysis of data.
Respondents of the study
The study was based on the complete enumeration of the households
engage in the agroforestry activities.The respondents practicing
agroforestry system belonged to the age ranging between 18-40 years
old.The researcher selected the respondents practicing agroforestry from
the three (3) Barangays namely: LaVictoria, Bagoladio and Inoyonan.
The researcher used survey questionnaire, formal group discussion and
actual visit on the study area. Key informant were also used to gather first
hand answer on narrative information not covered by the questionnaire .
Analysis of Data
In order to determine the responses, the researcher used simple
percentage calculation, summation and ranking as the basis of the
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents and discussed the different results taken after the conduct of the
actual survey in the area to meet the objectives of the study.
Socio-economic profiles of the respondents used in the study
Table 1. Profiles of the respondents from the three barangay subjected in the study.
Gender and Educational Attainment
Table 1 presents the profile of the respondents of the study. The three barangays
surveyed were that of Inoyonan, LaVictoria, and Bagoladio, all from the
Municipality of Bula. It could be noted that the respondent were dominantly
male(115) with only 40 females from a total of 155 respondents.With these
numbers majority of the respondents had elementary level education which is
59% and about 27.65% were able to obtain High School or secondary education.
Only 1 respondent was able to reach college level education.
The total number of family surveyed totaled 155 families. They were classified as
nuclear type and extended type family.There were 137 respondents who belong
to a nuclear family which consists of a mother, father, and their biological or
adoptive descendants and are often called the traditional family while 18 belong
to the so called extended family or family consisting of grandparents, aunts,
uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household. An example is a
married couple lives with either husband or wife's parents.
The size of the family was presented inTable 1.Three categories were used such
as the small size (with 1-4 members in a family), medium (5-6 members) and
large (7 and above members). There were 52 total families considered small
families, 85 considered medium and 19 families considered large from the three
barangays surveyed. Among the three barangays Bagoladio had the largest total
number of families with medium size families. The data also indicated that the
three barangays have family members ranging from 5-6 members. Only 19
families have large families of 7 or more members.
Land tenure status
Table 2a presented the land tenure status, source of income, and family income
per month of the respondents from the three barangays subjected in the study. It
could be noted that among the farmers surveyed, 83% were land owner or own
the land they cultivate while only 21 farmers were tenants and therefore cannot
decide directly on what to do in their farms. There were no lease holders from the
three barangays surveyed which indicates that most farm were either tilled by the
direct owner or allow their farm to be tilled by tenants without fixed rental.
Source of income
It could be noted that majority of the farmers surveyed, about 97%, from the three
barangays were farmers. Their primary source of income was taken from their
farms. Only two respondents, one each from Inoyonan and Bagoladio have
employment as source of income. No respondents claimed to acquire income
Family income per month
One hundred percent of the respondents have income less than Php 5000.00 per
month in all three barangays of Bula that were subjected in the study. This figure
implies that almost all respondents belong to the poverty threshold level. Among
the causes of low income in the barangay includes poor and continuing decline in
the productivity and profitability of farming, smaller farm sizes and unsustainable
practices that have led to deforestation. The table also shows that
underemployment could be partly due to little access to productive assets and
business opportunities.They have few non-farm income-generating activities, and
people have low educational background.
Agroforestry Systems in Bula
Farmers doing agroforestry
Figure 1 shows the percentage of farmers practicing
agroforestry in their fasrms. The highest number of
agroforestry practitioners among the three
barangays subjected in the study was Bagoladia
where 40% of the respondents. Agroforestry to
them is them is the integration of f tree species,
particurlarly fruit trees in their normal agriculture
practices. This was followed by LaVictoria with
32%. The lowest number of agrorestry practitioners
were found in Inoyonan with only 28% of the
respondents said that they are incorporating trees
along with their traditional crop and animal
Source of information promoting agroforestry
Information the farmers received about agroforestry came
from different sources. Based on the number of respondent
as shown inTable 3, the most effective in disseminating
information about agroforestry were coming from LGU
initiative, It has the highest mean response from the three
barangays. This implies that the LGU in Bula particularly the
Municipal Agriculture Office under the supervision of the
office of the Mayor has a direct influence in creating an
impact to the farmers in the three barangay.This could also
mean that the LGU is serious in looking for best agriculture
practices that will help the farmer improve their
productivity, hence, economic sustainability. LGU initiative
was followed by information or practices seen from
neighbors (15.7) and through seminars and training
attended with mean score of 13.7. Academe did not give
significant impact in terms of agroforestry since it could be
recalled that the farmers are generally elementary levels
Agroforestry practices employed by selected Barangays in
Bula, as presented inTable 4, showed that the most
popular among the farmers was the integration of trees
in their existing agricultural farms. Among the three
barangays Inoyonan had the most number of
respondent who scored tree integration as the leading
practice. Mixed cropping was the second most popular
practice followed by Multi-storey or multi-canopy
farming systems, then multiple cropping. It is
noteworthy to highlight that the Sloping Agricultural
LandTechnology (SALT) was never practiced in Bula.
This could mean that although it is the most popular
agroforestry practice in sloping areas, farmers in Bula,
because of less influence coming from the academe
was not able to acquire the basic knowledge and skills
in using the technology.
Why agroforesty is practiced by farmers?
There were several identified reasons why agroforestry
are being practiced by farmers in the selected
barangays in Bula as shown inTable 5. The most
popular reason among them was the idea that
agrofrorestry is good as a soil conservation measure
with mean score of 21.0 followed by the topographic
location of their farm which tied with those farmers
who considered the influence of other farmer was a
strong motivation for them to practice agroforestry.
Least influential as far as the respondents responses
were concerned was the influence brought by their
relatives or families having the least mean score of only
6.7. This could mean that immediate families of those
practicing agroforestry did not give enough motivation
for them to practice agroforestry.
Impacts of agroforestry
Ranking of the impacts of agroforestry was presented in
Table 5 where respondents were asked to rank them in
order of importance and advantages as regards to their
farming activities. All three barangays were unanimous
in saying that agroforestry gave additional income to
their family from their produce particularly on fruits and
other by products. The top 5 impacts in order of priority
ranking as perceived by the farmers from the three
barangay included the following: additional income
from trees, helped improve soil conditions of the farm,
prevent or minimize soil erosions, provided wood
products, and improved or enhanced family security in
terms of financial aspects. The two lesser impacts but
still considered important by farmers were the benefits
of having available shelter for their animals and also
helps reduce the impact of strongwinds.
SUMMARY,CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The three barangays surveyed were that of Inoyonan, LaVictoria, and Bagoladio, all from the
Municipality of Bula. The respondent were dominantly male (195) with only 40 females
from a total of 155 respondents.With these numbers majority of the respondents had
elementary level education which is 59% and about 27.65% were able to obtain High School
or secondary education. Only 1 respondent was able to reach college level education.
They were classified as nuclear type and extended type family.There were 137 respondents who
belong to a nuclear family while 18 belong to the so called extended family or family
consisting of grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same
household. There were 52 total families considered small families, 85 considered medium
and 19 families considered large from the three barangays surveyed. Barangay Bagoladio
had the largest total number of families with medium size families.
Eighty-three per cent were land owner or own the land they cultivate while only 21 farmers
were tenants and therefore cannot decide directly on what to do in their farms. Their
primary source of income was taken from their farms. One hundred percent of the
respondents have income less than Php 5000.00 per month in all three barangays of Bula
that were subjected in the study. This figure implies that almost all respondents belong to
the poverty threshold level. Among the causes of low income in the barangay includes poor
and continuing decline in the productivity and profitability of farming, smaller farm sizes
and unsustainable practices that have led to deforestation.
The highest number of agroforestry practitioners among the three barangays subjected in the
study was Bagoladia followed by LaVictoria. The lowest number of agrorestry practitioners
were found in Inoyonan with only 28% of the respondents said that they are incorporating
trees along with their traditional crop and animal production activities.
The most effective in disseminating information about agroforestry were LGU initiative, This
implies that the LGU in Bula particularly the MunicipalAgricultureOffice under the
supervision of the office of the Mayor has a direct influence in creating an impact to the
farmers in the three barangay. LGU initiative was followed by information or practices seen
from neighbors (15.7) and through seminars and training attended with mean score of 13.7.
Academe did not give significant impact in terms of agroforestry since it could be recalled
that the farmers are generally elementary levels only.
Integration of trees in their existing agricultural farms scored as the leading practice. Mixed
cropping was the second most popular practice followed by Multi-storey or multi-canopy
farming systems, then multiple cropping. Sloping Agricultural LandTechnology (SALT) was
never practiced in Bula because of less influence coming from the academe in acquiring the
basic knowledge and skills in using the technology.
Why agroforestry are being practiced by farmers in the selected barangays in Bula was the idea
that agrofrorestry is good as a soil conservation measure followed by the topographic
location of their farm which tied with those farmers who considered the influence of other
farmer was a strong motivation for them to practice agroforestry. Least influential as far as
the respondents’ responses were concerned was the influence brought by their relatives or
families which means that immediate families of those practicing agroforestry did not give
enough motivation for them to practice agroforestry.
All three barangays agreed that agroforestry gave additional income to their family from their
produce particularly on fruits and other by products. The top 5 impacts in order of priority
ranking were the following: additional income from trees, helped improve soil conditions of
the farm, prevent or minimize soil erosions, provided wood products, and improved or
enhanced family security in terms of financial aspects. The two lesser impacts but still
considered important by farmers were the benefits of having available shelter for their
animals and also helps reduce the impact of strong winds.
The researcher based on the foregoing results of the study
hereby concludes that given enough education and
information farmers shall be able to adopt the use of
agroforestry farm systems that will help them in
increasing their productivity and therefore increase
income. Furthermore agroforestry provides positive
impacts among those farmers that practiced
agroforestry and because of these impacts the farmer’s
tendency is to emulate the best practices that the
farmers are doing. I therefore, conclude farther that
good examples and good agroforestry practices tend to
motivate other farmer thereby creating a rippling effect
among farmers in the community bringing some
positive changes among farmers and creating positive
impact on the ecosystem.
The researcher recommends the following:
Further studies of the same nature be conducted to provide more
validity on the issues presented in this study.
Consider the issues presented in this study and be given
considerations in the preparation of local policies affecting our
farmers in the upland.
The academe should be a prime mover in introducing
agroecosystems technologies that will uplift socio-economic status
of the impoverished farmers in the upland to give them more
opportunities in life.
Funding should be allocated by the Department or college
concerned to provide a reward system for student researches that
shows academic excellence to motivate other student to conduct
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“Contribution of Agroforestry for Rural Livelihoods in Barangay Bagoladio, Bula, Camarines
Interview Schedule number_________
I. SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACHTERISTICSOFTHE RESPONDENTS.
( ) male
( ) female
a.) Elementary ( )
b.) High school ( )
c.) College ( )
d.)Vocational ( )
Income per month:
Below ( ) 5,000.00-10,000.00
( ) 10,000.00-15,000.00
( ) 15,000.00-20,000.00
Above ( ) 20,000.00
Sources of Income
( ) Farming
( ) Employment
( ) Abroad
Other please specify: