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  • Central Bicol State University of Agriculture San Jose, Pili, Camarines Sur “Contribution of Agroforestry in the Livelihoods Of some selected Barangays in Bula, Camarines Sur” By Mr. Edgar B. Baesa BSAF 4-A
  • Chapter I INTRODUCTION Agroforestry management is an essential component in the production of food and or services in the uplands to sustain their needs and uplift their socioeconomic conditions (Balla, 2010). In terms of providing livelihood among households, the technology had been proven by the other farmers who adopted agroforestry.They can afford to pay for the education of their family and wards, have the amenities and can afford medical treatment for the family (Baoteng, 2011). Furthermore, the technology increases income levels of farmers because the design has multi-cropping system. Farmers may reduce the risk of failing on cash crops if pest or diseases occur because of other crop to harvest and livestock integration provide other source of income for farmers being one of the components of the technology. Meanwhile, traditional monoculture cropping, applying excessive synthetic fertilizer and cutting of trees in the farm may cause degradation of soil nutrients and other irreversible damage in the soil. On the other hand, agroforestry system provides a way of cultivating the land with no harmful effect on the environment, thus, conservation occur Woody perennials are still dominant in Bula area where some of them are devoted for timber purposes.The Barangays LaVictoria, Bagoladio and Inoyonan from the municipality of Bula were selected because they are sloped land cultivated as farmland by the farmers whose livelihoods are mostly from farming where they get their source of food and cash. The primary products in the study area are copra, fruits and vegetables. Their activities include the making of broom stick, hauling firewood, making furniture, etc. Climate change is one of the factors affecting their harvest. Sustainable farm system operations and management is lacking in the area, hence, this study.
  • Objectives of the study The main objective of the study was to gain knowledge and gather informations about the benefits of agroforestry practices in the livelihoods of farmers in Barangays LaVictoria, Bagoladio and Inoyonan of Bula, Camarines Sur; Specially, the study has the following objectives: 1.)To know the socioeconomic profile of some selected Barangays in Bula. 2.)To determine the number of households practicing agroforestry system in some selected Barangays in Bula. 3.)To identify factors that contributes to the adoption of agroforestry practices in Bula. 4.)To determine the impacts of agroforestry in the livelihoods of some selected Barangays in Bula. 5.)To determines agroforestry system adopted by the farmers in the study area. 6.)To formulate suggestion and recommendations that will improve the livelihood in Bula, Camarines Sur.
  • Importance of the study This study is very important for at least three (3) important entities: 1.)To the farmers - It provides insights into contribution of agroforestry to the livelihood ds of large and marginal farmers. 2.)To the environment - Foremost reason why agroforestry contains an essential contribution to environment is because woody components existing in farmland served as shelterbelt for different species which naturally exists like birds, insects, snakes, wildcats, etc. and it also balances the climatic condition of land farm where trees serves as shades and wind breaks. 3.)To the researchers - It provides further information about the contributions of agroforestry for the livelihoods in rural community on how to elevate the socioeconomic and themselves as well. For the same study obtaining this case, where researcher could get some reviews of related literature and insights to formulate their methodology and instruments of gathering data.
  • Scope and limitations of the study The researcher focused only to the determination of responses that is set in the objectives of the study and shall not cover issues beyond its scope. The study was limited only in its specific locale covering Barangays Inoyonan, LaVictoria, and Bagoladio in Bula, Camarines Sur.The study was only limited on the use of survey questionnaire regarding the issues that the researcher wishes to address.
  • Definition ofTerms  Agroforestry - the system of planting crops, livestock keeping and establishment of woody components that provide the needs of households and in sustaining their livelihoods.  Livelihood - this could mean the day to day socioeconomic status of the respondents concerning their ability to meet individual family and other social needs.  Farmland - this is the area where crops and livestock are raised for economic purposes of the respondents.  Socioeconomic-this involves social and economic factors of the respondents including activities from the agroforestry system that help meet the day to day needs of their family.  Biodiversity - a degree of variation of life forms with in the study area such as birds, insects, snakes, wildcats, etc.  Shelterbelt - it is where the life forms used forest or tree components as a natural habitat in the study area.  Forest-based - it is the management of growing agricultural crops with existing tree species as major existing crops.  Intervention - courses of action to mitigate existing conditions on the livelihoods of households adopting agroforestry system.  Marginal - limited or restricted situation of the study area affecting the economic productivity of the respondents.  Conservation - practices of the respondents in protecting, preserving, managing, and restoring soil and land resources for the sustainable productivity.  Problems - hindrance and obstacles encountered that limits the study.
  • CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Socioeconomic of rural households Agroforestry system, according to Balla (2010) supplies fodder, fuel, wood, timber and fruits that helped improved the socioeconomic of rural households. According to him, in order to uplift the socioeconomic conditions of rural livelihoods and tribal community, there is a need to developed site specific agroforestry system (tribal means the community of people in a limited situation of their productivity of economy).This is supported by Malik, et. al. (2007) who said that agroforestry system such as agri-silvi, agri-horti-silvi, agri-silvi-pasture, silvi-pasture, agri-horti- pasture system are effective way to fill their needs because households generate self employment and earn cash uplifting their mental, social and economic status in the community. Furthermore, Baoteng (2011) attested that practitioners of agroforestry system increased their socioeconomic levels, improve household security, can afford to pay for children and wards, have amenities and can afford medical treatment for household members. In addition, Richard, et. al. (2010) stated that the adoption of agroforestry help diminished the suffering of poor peasants (farmers).
  • Figure 1. Products from the agroforestry farms of Bula.
  • According to Richard, et. al. (2010) there is always a chance of moving away from poverty by cultivating the land using agroforestry system. Converting the land into agroforestry management could provide sustaining needs of households in terms of food and cash. Because agroforestry system provide an essential elements and diversification of resources where farmers has an option and chances in generating income. Meanwhile, Kizito, et. al. (2009) stated that the NGOs’ interventions play vital roles in supporting those local communities in adopting technologies such as agroforestry, especially in a form of support such as the provision of seeds, fertilizers and especially in giving training program for the livelihood of (CF) conservation farmers to establish the missing blocks needed by the farmers.
  • Opportunities and income To build income generating activities in the farm, farmers need to make investment capital.According to Seatle, et. al. (2007) households’ investment include farm maintenance, labor, transportation, tools, to make the cost of their land higher in terms of its capability to produce the needed output . Tenth FiveYear Plan (2009) concluded that in order to reduce incidence of poverty, consideration of households on their specific strategies to improve their productivity in the farm should be well established and agroforestry system should be considered to generate higher productivity and income levels. Furthermore, DI Lalisa (2010) stated that integrated management of the land by using agro forestry is a good tool in reducing poverty.The component of the system producing wood products minimized forest encroachment and livestock keeping on the farmland generate income. According to M. Buyinza (2009) since agroforestry contributes significantly to households’ livelihood, farmers doing agroforestry are advised to mobilize themselves into groups to access agroforestry extension services that promote its adoption. If organized the question of land tenure could be resolved so as to enhance formulation of a good land use policy where farmers can be guaranteed security of their land hence encourage or promote adoption of both short and long term agroforestry practices.
  • Delivery of environmental benefits Agroforestry products are the most explicit value that could be sold for a profit. According to Anna Laakso (2006) households produce litter materials and other forest residues that serve as organic materials for fertilizer to have good harvest of crops. Other benefits of trees such as shades, windbreaks to which it regulates climatic conditions, live fence and firewood as source of energy. Furthermore, Leonida (2006) concluded that changes are expected in socio economic conditions as well as issues on sustainability if a farmer adheres to the adoption of agroforestry practices. Among these, the promotion of Biotechnology and integrated pest management instead of using synthetic pest control measures, the use of indigenous tree species to improve the productivity of the soil that delivers benefits to the environment.
  • Conceptual Framework AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES LIVELIHOODOF COMMUNITIES Figure 2. The researcher’s conceptual framework
  • The conceptual framework of the study The conceptual framework is shown in figure 1. A simple concept that says practicing agroforestry contributes positive impacts to the overall livelihoods of the community. Agroforestry practices then may provide essential generating income activities from the products and services that provide better condition to the community and in return helped enhance the use of technology. The concept also demonstrate the synergistic approach which gives impact to both the giver and the receiver. Aagroforestry practice improves livelihood income of communities while in exchange communities adopt a more sustainable eco-friendly farm system operations that benefits not only the involved household but the whole component of the entire agri-socio-ecological system.
  • Locale of the study Terrain The terrain of some selected Barangays in Bula ranges from flat rolling, steep to moderate steep, an average elevation of 17 meters above mean sea level with a latitude of 13.47(13 0210N) and a longitude of 123.27o Soil Generally, Bula,Camarines Sur soils is loamy clay.The project area is of clay loam type with depth ranging from 40cm. to 80cm.Soil pH ranges from 6.0-6.8. Climate The climate is aType II-climate where there is no dry season with a very pronounced rainfall from November to February.Average annual rainfall is 55 mm.Planting season start from June to October. Vegetation The study area are generally planted with agricultural crops like coconut, bamboo, banana and abaca, intercropped with ipil-ipil, fruit trees and other root crops. Forest trees (Gemelina, Ipil-ipil, Mango, Mahogany, Narra, Acacia) and (Acacia ariculiformis) are found in the different farm lots in the study area. Open lands not utilize during planting season or other parcel which is not use for cultivation for planting crops are used for grazing purposes. Low and upland rice was also found in the study area. Water Sources There are 5 units’ spring boxes in Inoyonan, 4 units of spring boxes in bagoladio and La Victoria, and 2 natural springs. And 5 pump in the Barangay LaVictoria and Bagoladio, 4 pumps in Inoyonan.The 1 unit of spring box is financed by the LGU’s and barangay officials for the continuous supply of water to the residence of Bagoladio.
  • Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the detailed description of the respondents of the study, the research instrument, sample population, sampling procedures and analysis of data. Respondents of the study The study was based on the complete enumeration of the households engage in the agroforestry activities.The respondents practicing agroforestry system belonged to the age ranging between 18-40 years old.The researcher selected the respondents practicing agroforestry from the three (3) Barangays namely: LaVictoria, Bagoladio and Inoyonan. Research Instrument The researcher used survey questionnaire, formal group discussion and actual visit on the study area. Key informant were also used to gather first hand answer on narrative information not covered by the questionnaire . Analysis of Data In order to determine the responses, the researcher used simple percentage calculation, summation and ranking as the basis of the foregoing discussion.
  • Chapter IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This chapter presents and discussed the different results taken after the conduct of the actual survey in the area to meet the objectives of the study. Socio-economic profiles of the respondents used in the study Table 1. Profiles of the respondents from the three barangay subjected in the study.
  • Gender and Educational Attainment Table 1 presents the profile of the respondents of the study. The three barangays surveyed were that of Inoyonan, LaVictoria, and Bagoladio, all from the Municipality of Bula. It could be noted that the respondent were dominantly male(115) with only 40 females from a total of 155 respondents.With these numbers majority of the respondents had elementary level education which is 59% and about 27.65% were able to obtain High School or secondary education. Only 1 respondent was able to reach college level education. Family Structure The total number of family surveyed totaled 155 families. They were classified as nuclear type and extended type family.There were 137 respondents who belong to a nuclear family which consists of a mother, father, and their biological or adoptive descendants and are often called the traditional family while 18 belong to the so called extended family or family consisting of grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household. An example is a married couple lives with either husband or wife's parents. Family size The size of the family was presented inTable 1.Three categories were used such as the small size (with 1-4 members in a family), medium (5-6 members) and large (7 and above members). There were 52 total families considered small families, 85 considered medium and 19 families considered large from the three barangays surveyed. Among the three barangays Bagoladio had the largest total number of families with medium size families. The data also indicated that the three barangays have family members ranging from 5-6 members. Only 19 families have large families of 7 or more members.
  • Land tenure status Table 2a presented the land tenure status, source of income, and family income per month of the respondents from the three barangays subjected in the study. It could be noted that among the farmers surveyed, 83% were land owner or own the land they cultivate while only 21 farmers were tenants and therefore cannot decide directly on what to do in their farms. There were no lease holders from the three barangays surveyed which indicates that most farm were either tilled by the direct owner or allow their farm to be tilled by tenants without fixed rental. Source of income It could be noted that majority of the farmers surveyed, about 97%, from the three barangays were farmers. Their primary source of income was taken from their farms. Only two respondents, one each from Inoyonan and Bagoladio have employment as source of income. No respondents claimed to acquire income from abroad. Family income per month One hundred percent of the respondents have income less than Php 5000.00 per month in all three barangays of Bula that were subjected in the study. This figure implies that almost all respondents belong to the poverty threshold level. Among the causes of low income in the barangay includes poor and continuing decline in the productivity and profitability of farming, smaller farm sizes and unsustainable practices that have led to deforestation. The table also shows that underemployment could be partly due to little access to productive assets and business opportunities.They have few non-farm income-generating activities, and people have low educational background.
  • Agroforestry Systems in Bula
  • Farmers doing agroforestry Figure 1 shows the percentage of farmers practicing agroforestry in their fasrms. The highest number of agroforestry practitioners among the three barangays subjected in the study was Bagoladia where 40% of the respondents. Agroforestry to them is them is the integration of f tree species, particurlarly fruit trees in their normal agriculture practices. This was followed by LaVictoria with 32%. The lowest number of agrorestry practitioners were found in Inoyonan with only 28% of the respondents said that they are incorporating trees along with their traditional crop and animal production activities.
  • Source of information promoting agroforestry Information the farmers received about agroforestry came from different sources. Based on the number of respondent as shown inTable 3, the most effective in disseminating information about agroforestry were coming from LGU initiative, It has the highest mean response from the three barangays. This implies that the LGU in Bula particularly the Municipal Agriculture Office under the supervision of the office of the Mayor has a direct influence in creating an impact to the farmers in the three barangay.This could also mean that the LGU is serious in looking for best agriculture practices that will help the farmer improve their productivity, hence, economic sustainability. LGU initiative was followed by information or practices seen from neighbors (15.7) and through seminars and training attended with mean score of 13.7. Academe did not give significant impact in terms of agroforestry since it could be recalled that the farmers are generally elementary levels only.
  • Agroforestry practices Agroforestry practices employed by selected Barangays in Bula, as presented inTable 4, showed that the most popular among the farmers was the integration of trees in their existing agricultural farms. Among the three barangays Inoyonan had the most number of respondent who scored tree integration as the leading practice. Mixed cropping was the second most popular practice followed by Multi-storey or multi-canopy farming systems, then multiple cropping. It is noteworthy to highlight that the Sloping Agricultural LandTechnology (SALT) was never practiced in Bula. This could mean that although it is the most popular agroforestry practice in sloping areas, farmers in Bula, because of less influence coming from the academe was not able to acquire the basic knowledge and skills in using the technology.
  • Why agroforesty is practiced by farmers? There were several identified reasons why agroforestry are being practiced by farmers in the selected barangays in Bula as shown inTable 5. The most popular reason among them was the idea that agrofrorestry is good as a soil conservation measure with mean score of 21.0 followed by the topographic location of their farm which tied with those farmers who considered the influence of other farmer was a strong motivation for them to practice agroforestry. Least influential as far as the respondents responses were concerned was the influence brought by their relatives or families having the least mean score of only 6.7. This could mean that immediate families of those practicing agroforestry did not give enough motivation for them to practice agroforestry.
  • Impacts of agroforestry Ranking of the impacts of agroforestry was presented in Table 5 where respondents were asked to rank them in order of importance and advantages as regards to their farming activities. All three barangays were unanimous in saying that agroforestry gave additional income to their family from their produce particularly on fruits and other by products. The top 5 impacts in order of priority ranking as perceived by the farmers from the three barangay included the following: additional income from trees, helped improve soil conditions of the farm, prevent or minimize soil erosions, provided wood products, and improved or enhanced family security in terms of financial aspects. The two lesser impacts but still considered important by farmers were the benefits of having available shelter for their animals and also helps reduce the impact of strongwinds. 
  • ChapterV SUMMARY,CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The three barangays surveyed were that of Inoyonan, LaVictoria, and Bagoladio, all from the Municipality of Bula. The respondent were dominantly male (195) with only 40 females from a total of 155 respondents.With these numbers majority of the respondents had elementary level education which is 59% and about 27.65% were able to obtain High School or secondary education. Only 1 respondent was able to reach college level education. They were classified as nuclear type and extended type family.There were 137 respondents who belong to a nuclear family while 18 belong to the so called extended family or family consisting of grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household. There were 52 total families considered small families, 85 considered medium and 19 families considered large from the three barangays surveyed. Barangay Bagoladio had the largest total number of families with medium size families. Eighty-three per cent were land owner or own the land they cultivate while only 21 farmers were tenants and therefore cannot decide directly on what to do in their farms. Their primary source of income was taken from their farms. One hundred percent of the respondents have income less than Php 5000.00 per month in all three barangays of Bula that were subjected in the study. This figure implies that almost all respondents belong to the poverty threshold level. Among the causes of low income in the barangay includes poor and continuing decline in the productivity and profitability of farming, smaller farm sizes and unsustainable practices that have led to deforestation. The highest number of agroforestry practitioners among the three barangays subjected in the study was Bagoladia followed by LaVictoria. The lowest number of agrorestry practitioners were found in Inoyonan with only 28% of the respondents said that they are incorporating trees along with their traditional crop and animal production activities.
  • The most effective in disseminating information about agroforestry were LGU initiative, This implies that the LGU in Bula particularly the MunicipalAgricultureOffice under the supervision of the office of the Mayor has a direct influence in creating an impact to the farmers in the three barangay. LGU initiative was followed by information or practices seen from neighbors (15.7) and through seminars and training attended with mean score of 13.7. Academe did not give significant impact in terms of agroforestry since it could be recalled that the farmers are generally elementary levels only. Integration of trees in their existing agricultural farms scored as the leading practice. Mixed cropping was the second most popular practice followed by Multi-storey or multi-canopy farming systems, then multiple cropping. Sloping Agricultural LandTechnology (SALT) was never practiced in Bula because of less influence coming from the academe in acquiring the basic knowledge and skills in using the technology. Why agroforestry are being practiced by farmers in the selected barangays in Bula was the idea that agrofrorestry is good as a soil conservation measure followed by the topographic location of their farm which tied with those farmers who considered the influence of other farmer was a strong motivation for them to practice agroforestry. Least influential as far as the respondents’ responses were concerned was the influence brought by their relatives or families which means that immediate families of those practicing agroforestry did not give enough motivation for them to practice agroforestry. All three barangays agreed that agroforestry gave additional income to their family from their produce particularly on fruits and other by products. The top 5 impacts in order of priority ranking were the following: additional income from trees, helped improve soil conditions of the farm, prevent or minimize soil erosions, provided wood products, and improved or enhanced family security in terms of financial aspects. The two lesser impacts but still considered important by farmers were the benefits of having available shelter for their animals and also helps reduce the impact of strong winds.
  • Conclusion The researcher based on the foregoing results of the study hereby concludes that given enough education and information farmers shall be able to adopt the use of agroforestry farm systems that will help them in increasing their productivity and therefore increase income. Furthermore agroforestry provides positive impacts among those farmers that practiced agroforestry and because of these impacts the farmer’s tendency is to emulate the best practices that the farmers are doing. I therefore, conclude farther that good examples and good agroforestry practices tend to motivate other farmer thereby creating a rippling effect among farmers in the community bringing some positive changes among farmers and creating positive impact on the ecosystem.
  • Recommendations The researcher recommends the following:  Further studies of the same nature be conducted to provide more validity on the issues presented in this study.  Consider the issues presented in this study and be given considerations in the preparation of local policies affecting our farmers in the upland.  The academe should be a prime mover in introducing agroecosystems technologies that will uplift socio-economic status of the impoverished farmers in the upland to give them more opportunities in life.  Funding should be allocated by the Department or college concerned to provide a reward system for student researches that shows academic excellence to motivate other student to conduct research.
  • LITERATURECITED  Baoteng Isaac. 4-Aug-2011.The impact of Agroforestry on the livelihood of rural farming households. http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/591, College of Agric and Natural Resources  DI Lalisa Alemayehu Duguma. November 2010. Agroforestry AsATool For Integrated Land Resources Management: Improving Farmers’ Livelihood, ProvidingWood ProductsAnd Minimizing Forest Encroachment. University of Natural Resourcesand Life Sciences,Vienna, pp. 24  Kizito Mazvimavi and SteveTwomlow 1. 2009 Socioeconomic and institutional factors influencing adoption of conservation farming by vulnerable households. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, P.O. Box 776, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe pp. 28  LaaksoA., &TapaniTyynelä. 2006. Non-wood Forest Benefits and Agroforestry Practices in the Fouta Djallon Highlands of Guinea, Nordic Journal of African Studies 15(4): 579–59., University of Joensuu, Finland  LeonidaA. Bugayong. 19-23 May 2003. Socioeconomic and Environmental Benefits of Agroforestry Practices in a Community-based Forest Management Site in the Philippines,The International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity, Bonn, Germany, pp. 19  M. Buyinza , R. Nalule and P. Byakagaba, 2009, LandTenure Systems and Extension Methods: Assessment of Agroforestry Adoption in Kalungu Sub-County, Masaka District, Uganda., Environmental Research Journal, Year: 2009 |Volume: 3 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 42-45  M.S. Malik, P. Kaushal & R.B. Sah. 2007. SOCIO-ECONOMIC UPLIFTMENTOFTRIBALCOMMUNITIES IN JHARKHANDTHROUGHAGROFORESTRY BASED FARMING SYSTEM. Faculty of Forestry Birsa Agril. University, Ranchi, pp. 4-9  Mohan K Balla. 2010. Assessment of effects of socio-economic factors on the farm tree diversity (agroforestry). 16th International Symposium on Society and Resource ManagementTyranny of ‘Or’: Conservation or Development? Preservation or Utilization? Held June 6 - 10, 2010 at Corpus Christi,Texas USA. pp. 8  Richard Ingwe, C.C.C. Ikeji andWalter Mboto. No.2, 2010. FORESTRY, POVERTYALLEVIATIONAND HUMAN LIVELIHOODSSUPPORT, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 12)  Tenth FiveYear Plan. 2002-07. Poverty Alleviation In Rural India – Strategy And Programmes. Chapter 3.2- (3.2.1), Pp. 293.
  • APPENDIX “Contribution of Agroforestry for Rural Livelihoods in Barangay Bagoladio, Bula, Camarines Sur” Interview Schedule number_________ Baranggay________________ Zone____ I. SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACHTERISTICSOFTHE RESPONDENTS.  Name: ______________________  Age:____  Sex: ( ) male ( ) female  Educational attainment: a.) Elementary ( ) b.) High school ( ) c.) College ( ) d.)Vocational ( )
  •  Occupation: a.)Primary occupation: ____________________ b.)Secondary occupation: __________________  Income per month: Below ( ) 5,000.00-10,000.00 ( ) 10,000.00-15,000.00 ( ) 15,000.00-20,000.00 Above ( ) 20,000.00  Sources of Income ( ) Farming ( ) Employment ( ) Abroad Other please specify: _______________________  LandTenure Tenant___________ Owner___________ Lease holder______  Family size Small____________ Medium__________ Large____________  Family Structure Nuclear _________ Extended________
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