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Pepe jeans case study presentation


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operations management

operations management

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  • 1. Kemilembe Mjungu Christina Bills Evelyne Ringia
  • 2. Case-Study Overview • Background • Statement of a problem • Alternative Solutions • Recommendations • Conclusion
  • 3.  1988 The song How Soon is Now? by The Smiths was used to advertise the brand.  1998 Tommy Hilfiger Canada Inc. acquired a portion of Pepe Jeans USA for $1.15 billion  2006 Pepe Jeans London has announced Sienna Miller, British actress and Hollywood superstar as new face of the brand.  2008 Pepe Jeans is now one of the most successful jean companies in history with sales in over 60 markets and locations all over the world.  Currently Pepe Jeans is present over 100 countries and employs more than 5000 employees all over the world. Pepe jeans has created a global brand awareness  1973 Pepe Jeans was established as a road side stall by three brothers Nitin Shah, Arun Shah and Milan Shah from Kenya at Portobello Road Market in West London’s trendy Notting Hill district.  1975 Pepe Jeans started becoming well known brand name in Europe. Due to this fact that Pepe was growing bigger it was necessary to open the boutiques and later warehouse, and offices in London.  In the 80s the brand grew even more and it became one of Europe's best clothing brands
  • 4. Technology • The main technological development in the Apparel Wholesaling has been the electronic management of the supply chain. Wholesalers do this through a number of technologies, including electronic data interchange (EDI), extensible markup language (XML) and radio frequency identification (RFID). Revenue Volatility • According to IBIS World report, during the five-year period to 2014, it is estimated that revenue for Global Manufacturing this industry has fallen at an annualized rate of 4.0% per year, to $4.6 billion. Regulation and Policy • Wholesalers must abide by UK Patent and Trademark laws, which relate to the protection of intellectual property rights. Penalties are imposed on the infringement of patents, such as patents for clothing designs. Demand Determinant • Demand for products within the Women's and Children's Apparel Wholesaling industry is influenced by per capita disposable income and consumers' feelings about their financial futures. When consumers' have high levels of disposable income and believe that they will have steady or higher levels of disposable income in the future, then they are more inclined to buy apparel. Key buying • Women’s clothing stores, department stores, family clothing stores, warehouse clubs and super centers etc. Key Selling • Cut and Sew manufacturers, General Apparel manufacturers Denim Industry Overview.
  • 5. Pepe jeans has been enjoying considerable financial success in its current business model. Last year the company made profit before taxes nearly 32% of sales as per the financial analysis below. (Million ₤) Sales 200 Cost of sales (80) Gross Profit 120 Operating expenses (56) Profit before taxes 64 Current Status.
  • 6. • Majority of Pepe’s sales are through about 1500 independent outlets throughout UK. They maintain contact with its independent retailers via a group of approximately 10 agents who are self employed and work exclusively for Pepe and each of them is responsible for retailers in the particular area of the country • Agents meet with each retailer 3 to 4 times a year to present new collections and take order Contact is done by holding presentation in a hotel for several retailers. Orders are taken for 6 months delivery. • • After Pepe receives an order a retailer has 1 week to cancel or make changes • Pepe has long standing policy to not hold inventory • After orders are placed status can be seen online How Pepe manages its distributers
  • 7. Pepe’s current supply chain Retailers have to place orders 6 months before they arrive •1 weeks to amend Pepe takes the orders to the agent in china The agent conduct a bidding to about 1000 potential supplier’s •Every 2 weeks weeks The winner works with Pepe Jeans designers for specifications and quality assurance Production starts Manufacturers transport Jeans from China to Retailers •Total Lead Time is 6 months
  • 8. • A recent survey of independent retailers indicated some growing problems. Complaints from Independent retailers • Pepe has become less of a trend setter than in the early days • Retailers are unhappy with Pepe’s requirements to place orders 6 months in advance with no possibility of amendments, cancellation, or repeat ordering. • The inflexible order system forced retailers to order less resulting to stock outs of particular sizes and styles and they estimated that Pepe’s sales would increase by 10% in sales with a more flexible ordering system (Current sales - £200 Mil. therefore 10% of would be £ 20 Mil. Profit before taxes (PBT) at the rate of 32 % would mean an increase in the PBT of £ 6.4 Mil. ) Why is Pepe Concerned?
  • 9. How were the retailers affected by Pepe’s ordering system? • The six months ordering time made it difficult for retailers to accurately forecast and order. • The fashion market is very impulsive and therefore the current favorites are not in Vogue 6 months in the future • When demand exceeded expectations it took a long time to fill the gap Why is Pepe Concerned? What retailers wanted:- • Some limited returns, exchange, or re-ordering to overcome the problems. • Pepe felt some pressure to respond because some of smaller competitors offered delivery in only a few days.
  • 10. • The desired Outcomes • Reduced Lead Time • Possibility of amendments, cancellation, or repeat ordering for the Retailers • Have more robust designs that set trends like it used to be What Can Pepe Jeans Do to address complaints?
  • 11. • Shorten the lead time to as little as six weeks with the current agent Pros • The advantage in this alternative is that the company does not have to make any initial investment but has to incur this additional cost every year. Since no investment is made , no payback period is calculated Cons • Significant increase in costs to as much as 30%. Currently the yearly cost of sales is 40% of sales of £ 200 M that is £ 80 000 000 ( 40%x £ 200 000 000) If the cost goes up by 30% it would mean 30% of £ 80 000 000M that is £ 24 000 000 In return for this increase in cost the company could make an approximate increase in the PBT of £ 6 400 000 but it will cost extra £ 24 000 000 therefore the cost outweigh the profit by £ 17 600 000. How can Pepe Jeans achieve the desired Goals Solution 1:
  • 12. • Building a finishing operations in the United Kingdom. According to the agent a retail chain moved to this type of structure and it was very successful • Feasibility: Solution 2: Initial fixed cost for equipment £ 1,000,000 Renovations £ 300,000 Total Initial cost £ 1,300,000 Operations costs £ 500,000 Current COS (200M*40%) £ 800,000 Lead = 6 weeks (6/52 X £ 80,000,000) £ 9,230,000 Inventory carrying cost is (30%x £ 9,230,000) £ 2,769,000 Total recurring cost inventory carrying cost+ operations costs ( £ 2 769 000 + £ 500 000) £ 3,269,000
  • 13. Pros • A US firm found that it could give a 2 day response time to retail stores. • The costs for basic jeans reduced by 10 due to utilization of economies of scale • Lead time reduced from 6 to 3 months • It will increase inventory carrying cost by £3 269 000 and increase PBT by £ 6 400 000 .The benefit outweigh the cost by £ 6 400 000 – £3 269 000 = £ 3 130 000 • Now, the fixed investment made by the company is £ 1 300 000 so the payback period is (1.3/3.13) x 52 = 21.6 weeks. Cons • It require a significant initial investment. Solution 2: . . . continued
  • 14. Sourcing from new suppliers overseas • From the research conducted, there are other suppliers who are able to make and supply jeans to Pepe’s customers. • There are suppliers using manufacturing facilities in China, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. These countries have apparel manufacturers who are known for making cheap and quality clothing. Pros • For Pepe Jeans to have this many choices, will automatically have more bargaining power and ultimately demand fast delivery of products to the retailers. • If Pepe Jeans take this option, they might be able to reduce the lead time to six weeks. This option might even lead to decrease in cost of sales and increase Pepe Jeans’ profit. Cons • Quality control with new manufactures may be difficult • Will have to establish new supply chains and new business relationships which might prove to be costly. Solution 3:
  • 15. Use manufactures locally • There are still cloth manufacturers who are operating in United Kingdom that Pepe Jeans could start using. There are still cloth manufacturers in United Kingdom of the like of Cooper & Stollbrand, Johnstons of Elgin and Michael Edward Ltd Pros • Reduce Lead time. • Easier to monitor quality Cons • More expensive than the current option • Easier logistics Solution 4:
  • 16. Establish own manufacturing facility • Pepe Jeans can start doing their own manufacturing. Pepe currently is in a very strong financial position and has no debt. This position affords them a financial possibility of starting their own manufacturing facilities. • Pepe Jeans could locate their facilities in countries which have low labor cost and low taxes like China, Hong Kong, Vietnam and others. Pros • No Middle Man, Pepe will have full control on all of the supply chain • There will be optimum flexibility with their retailers • It will be easier to expand their operations and take advantage of export business • Guarantee sustainability and quality Cons • It will require a huge initial investment Solution 5: Example: According to Forbes magazine, Inditex, owner of fast-fashion emporium Zara, manufactures almost all of its goods in La Coruña, Spain. “The clothes reach the sales floor more quickly and efficiently, thus serving more consumers. (Zara’s clothes hit the floor so quickly that for the first few hours they are kept on cheap plastic hangers to indicate that the items arrived that morning.)” (Forbes)
  • 17. The use of Enterprise Resource Planning system (ERP) • Pepe Jeans should start the use of ERP system. The system will be integrated with the retailers, the suppliers and all the departments in Pepe Jeans which deals with inventory movements. This integration will enable the retailers to place their orders in the ERP system and make sure the person who is responsible with that order receives it instantly without any delays. That person can also send request to another person in the supply chain instantly without any delays as well. The system also sends requests automatically to the next person in the supply chain so as to eliminate delays. The system will act as a reminder of the process to all the people who are involved in the supply chain. Pros • Reduce Lead time. • Give Retailers more controls over their merchandize Cons • The system, deploying it and training can be expensive given the big number of retailers Solution 6:
  • 18. • Study: • There is an Empirical study performed on the lead time improvement from the implementation of ERP system done by Cotteleer and Bendoly. The study was based on a company called Tristen Inc. information was collected from this company before the company installed the system and after the company installed the system. The result obtained showed that lead time was reduced by at least 28%. The study further reveal that there is a strong correlation between reduction of lead time and increase in revenue. Solution 6: . . . continued • The use of ERP system will come with a certain financial cost as well as time investment in training. However, from the empirical study, it has been proven that the use of ERP comes with a financial return which is worth the investment.
  • 19. • Solutions 1: Shorten the Lead time with current suppliers • Solution 2: Building a finishing operations in the United Kingdom Financial comparisons between solution 1, 2 and the current situation Old Model Solution 1 Solution 2 Sales 200,000,000 220,000,000 220,000,000 Cost of sales 80,000,000 104,000,000 72,000,000 Gross Profit 120,000,000 116,000,000 148,000,000 Operating expenses 56,000,000 56,000,000 56,000,000 Inventory holding costs 2,769,231 Facility operating costs 500,000 Profit before taxes 64,000,000 60,000,000 88,730,769
  • 20. Recommendations From the 6 solutions we came up with there are some that can be used as a temporary measure and others for long term considerations Temporary Solution 1: Shorten the Lead time with current suppliers Solution 3: Sourcing from new suppliers overseas Solution 4: Use local manufacturers (can be used t fill the demand gaps) Medium term Solution 2: Building a finishing operations in the United Kingdom Long term Solution 5: Establishing own manufacturing facility (smooth transition from the finishing operation that they will already have up and running) Solution 6: ERP system
  • 21. Questions? Comments?
  • 22. References • Robert, J & R, B Chase Operations and supply chain management book • Pepe Jeans official website retrieved from • IBISI World report on the global Apparel industry retrieved from ntid=349 • Top 10 destination for clothing manufacturers retrieved from manufacturers/ • Who Makes The Clothes On Your Back? retrieved from cx_ls_outsourcing08_0529offshore.html • Cotteleer M and Bendoly E, (2005) Order Lead-time Improvement Following Enterprise-IT Implementation: An Empirical Study.