Bringing Navigation
Indoors

Fabio Belloni
Principal Researcher
NRC Radio Systems Laboratory
Finland
Nokia Research Center...
Contents
•  Why going indoors?
•  Use cases, opportunities, and challenges

•  Cognitive Positioning
•  Hybrid positioning...
Why going indoors?

Nokia Research Center
3

Nokia Internal Use Only
Motivation for Indoor Positioning
•  Location based services (LBS) are growing
enabled by mobile devices with GPS; e.g.

T...
Example of Consumer Needs
B2C use cases

Where to
find milk?

Who’s
around?
Where did I
leave my car?

Where is the
closes...
Example of Businesses Needs
B2B use cases
Is real-time security
management
possible?

Is the layout of my
store effective?...
....mentioning some companies looking at
indoors
SkyHook Wireless (USA)
Qubulus (Sweden)
Ekahau (Finland)
GloPos (Finland)...
Indoor environments are very different

•  Open/close spaces
•  High/low ceiling
•  Static/dynamic
•  Metal surfaces
•  Cr...
Indoor environments are in 3D (….or 2.5D)
•  Multi-floors
•  Floors opening
•  Connection points; elevator,
escalators, st...
Cognitive Positioning

Nokia Research Center
10

Nokia Internal Use Only
Exploiting different Positioning Technologies
GNSS/AGPS

WiFi

BT/BLE

Fusion filter

IMU

Maps

Nokia Research Center
11
...
Mobile Devices using Hybrid Positioning
•  Positioning Technologies need to be transparent to users.
•  The device need to...
Indoor Maps &
Positioning Content
Layers

Nokia Research Center
13

Nokia Internal Use Only
Positioning Content Layer
•  Maps comprises of several layers of information, having different roles:
•  For visualization...
Positioning Content LayerFinger Printing
Classes of

Info enabling

AP location
Radio Maps

positioning
technologies
•  WL...
– HAIP –
High Accuracy Indoor
Positioning

Nokia Research Center
16

Nokia Internal Use Only
HAIP – Location Enhanced Bluetooth
Technology
•  Built on top of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
technology
•  a new protocol a...
Two Modes of HAIP – Technical Principle
Network centric mode:

Mobile centric mode:

•  A Tag or a Mobile Phone transmits
...
Localization Principle with a Single Locator
z
Using a single antenna and

TX / RX

fixed mobile height, mobile
can resolv...
Localization Principle with Multiple Locators
z

z
TX / RX

TX / RX

θ2

Using multiple positioning beacons,
mobile can re...
Server-Centric configuration
Locator
(in receive mode)

Positioning
Server
3GPP
WLAN

BLE Tag
BLE phone

Map + PCL

Nokia ...
Mobile-Centric configuration
One way communication is sufficient between
the mobile and the locator; i.e. time
synchroniza...
HAIP Benefits
• 

Small power consumption

• 

Offers high accuracy; ~1 m in large open indoor areas and 0.3m in office sp...
HAIP Experimental results
Real path
Measured path
Positioning Beacon X

Nokia Research Center
24

Nokia Internal Use Only
HAIP Demonstrations & Videos

Nokia Research Center
25

Nokia Internal Use Only
HAIP Technology Status
•  Current prototypes are built by modifying the Bluetooth Low Energy standard
•  Discussions initi...
Example of hybrid positioning
system

Nokia Research Center
27

Nokia Internal Use Only
Pedestrian Dead Reckoning
TARGET: to evaluate the performance of a
Nokia made sensorbox for PDR

•  Nokia sensor boxes wer...
Motivation
•  Solutions for outdoor positioning do not directly
apply indoors, and other easily deployable
approaches are ...
Approach
•  Complementary Kalman filter

tracks the
error states of 15 parameters: position, velocity,
attitude, gyro and ...
Results

•  Only inertial navigation, no map info used
•  Initial position and direction of motion needed

Begin & End

En...
Results

•  Climbing

up the staircase

•  Only inertial navigation, no map info used
5th floor

4th floor

3rd floor

2nd...
Fusion filter and hybrid positioning system
TARGET: improved accuracy, reliability and
reduced complexity of calculations ...
An example of the particle initialization

•  Angle-based location probability matrix covering
the room where multi-antenn...
Fusion filter

Nokia Research Center
35

Nokia Internal Use Only
Example results
Fusion of map and PDR in cafeteria

•  PDR route clearly deviates, but it is
corrected by fusion filter
• ...
Example Results

Using map data in the fusion filter
helps improving data quality, at least in
a dense indoor environment
...
BLE proximity Positioning

Nokia Research Center
38

Nokia Internal Use Only
BLE Proximity Positioning
Concept description
•  Applicable on BLE devices:

with BLE tags:

•  Tags put on known position...
Beneficts
•  The system uses standard Bluetooth 4.0 technology
•  Tags
•  time life 1-2 years, practically no maintenance ...
Thank
You !
•  F. Belloni, V. Ranki, A. Kainulainen, and A. Richter,
"Angle-based Indoor Positioning System for Open Indoo...
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Bringing navigation indoors

  1. 1. Bringing Navigation Indoors Fabio Belloni Principal Researcher NRC Radio Systems Laboratory Finland Nokia Research Center Nokia Internal Use Only
  2. 2. Contents •  Why going indoors? •  Use cases, opportunities, and challenges •  Cognitive Positioning •  Hybrid positioning systems •  Indoor Map meets Positioning Technologies •  the Positioning Content Layers •  Angular-based Positioning System •  High Accuracy Indoor Positioning (HAIP) •  Example of hybrid positioning system •  Combining IMU, HAIP, and indoor maps •  BLE proximity •  Using standard Bluetooth 4.0 for positioning  Come to see the demos ! Nokia Research Center 2 Nokia Internal Use Only
  3. 3. Why going indoors? Nokia Research Center 3 Nokia Internal Use Only
  4. 4. Motivation for Indoor Positioning •  Location based services (LBS) are growing enabled by mobile devices with GPS; e.g. Time spent … •  Navigation and guidance •  Sport, training, and health •  Social networks •  Security and Emergencies •  Accessibility •  People spend most of their time indoors •  No wide-spread indoor positioning systems and services are available yet •  GPS operation is very limited indoors •  Personal communication devices can enable indoor positioning through local wireless networks •  Big market opportunity in indoor LBS Nokia Research Center 4 Nokia Internal Use Only People spend 80-90% of their time indoors 70% of cellular calls and 80% of data connections originate from indoors. (Source Strategy Analytics)
  5. 5. Example of Consumer Needs B2C use cases Where to find milk? Who’s around? Where did I leave my car? Where is the closest restaurant? How to get there? Nokia Research Center 5 Nokia Internal Use Only What can I find here?
  6. 6. Example of Businesses Needs B2B use cases Is real-time security management possible? Is the layout of my store effective? Retail chain, Mall manager, Service Providers, System integrators, Marketing analyst, Car manufactures, etc. How can I attract customers to my business? I want to track my goods? Nokia Research Center 6 Nokia Internal Use Only Can I extend the onboard car navigation? I want to build a dynamic advertisement platform
  7. 7. ....mentioning some companies looking at indoors SkyHook Wireless (USA) Qubulus (Sweden) Ekahau (Finland) GloPos (Finland) PointInside (USA) WLAN Tracker (Germany) SenseWhere (UK) SEER Technology (USA) FootPath (Germany) Roodin (Italy) Teldio (Canada) Locata (Australia) OmniSense (U.K.) BatPhone (USA) Q-track (USA) Motorola Google Microsoft Samsung Apple RIM Nokia Nokia Research Center Sony Ericsson 7 Nokia Internal Use Only ....the list is not complete and in no particular order....
  8. 8. Indoor environments are very different •  Open/close spaces •  High/low ceiling •  Static/dynamic •  Metal surfaces •  Crowded/empty Nokia Research Center 8 Nokia Internal Use Only
  9. 9. Indoor environments are in 3D (….or 2.5D) •  Multi-floors •  Floors opening •  Connection points; elevator, escalators, staircases, etc •  Usually: •  3D: Lat/Lon/Alt •  2.5D: Lat/Lon/Floor (or level) •  Overall Challenge:  How to educate the market! •  For success: having the solid technology solution is necessary….. …but it may not be sufficient! Nokia Research Center 9 Nokia Internal Use Only
  10. 10. Cognitive Positioning Nokia Research Center 10 Nokia Internal Use Only
  11. 11. Exploiting different Positioning Technologies GNSS/AGPS WiFi BT/BLE Fusion filter IMU Maps Nokia Research Center 11 Nokia Internal Use Only Application
  12. 12. Mobile Devices using Hybrid Positioning •  Positioning Technologies need to be transparent to users. •  The device need to become positioning aware and switch between positioning technologies seamlessly. •  Proper handling of transition and handover areas is crucial •  For example: •  the Application sets the QoS requirements •  The Filter select the most appropriate positioning technology: meet the requirements by using the least power consumption •  Data Fusion could be carried out using •  Hard decisions and switching between technologies •  Particle Filter •  Kalman Filter •  In order to combine independent data streams, it is very important that each estimation technologies provides at least •  the real-time variance (or any measure of uncertainty) of the generated location data •  Some form of Time Stamp Nokia Research Center 12 Nokia Internal Use Only
  13. 13. Indoor Maps & Positioning Content Layers Nokia Research Center 13 Nokia Internal Use Only
  14. 14. Positioning Content Layer •  Maps comprises of several layers of information, having different roles: •  For visualization and rendering •  Search •  Routing •  Navigation and guidance •  The Positioning Content Layer (PCL) comprises of information needed for running the positioning algorithm. •  PCL are “invisible” to the user. •  In order to make the whole indoor solution scalable, secure, and sustainable, the PCL need to be referred to one map •  This should also simply synchronization and data management Nokia Research Center 14 Nokia Internal Use Only
  15. 15. Positioning Content LayerFinger Printing Classes of Info enabling AP location Radio Maps positioning technologies •  WLAN specific positioning algorithm Info used for data filtering Location of RFID tags Attributes (e.g. ID, type, etc) •  IMU •  RFID Attributes (e.g. ID, type, etc) •  BT MAP Location of BT tags Calibration data Locations of anchor nodes •  BLE Attributes (e.g. ID, type, MAC addr, Tx channel, etc) Calibration data Layer for map rendering and visualization Layer with the POI and their attributes Raw map data Layers with information visible to the user Positioning Content Layers Nokia Research Center 15 Nokia Internal Use Only
  16. 16. – HAIP – High Accuracy Indoor Positioning Nokia Research Center 16 Nokia Internal Use Only
  17. 17. HAIP – Location Enhanced Bluetooth Technology •  Built on top of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology •  a new protocol allowing direction finding capability has been added •  Provides up to 0.3 m position accuracy with <1 sec delays •  Based on directional positioning beacons installed in covered areas •  No calibration of the radio environment required •  HAIP can operate in two configuration modes •  Assets Tracking (or network centric) •  Mobile Centric •  HAIP technologies is based on measuring angular estimation, from or to the locator. •  The locator is a switched antenna array •  multiple antenna elements and one BLE transceiver. Nokia Research Center 17 Nokia Internal Use Only
  18. 18. Two Modes of HAIP – Technical Principle Network centric mode: Mobile centric mode: •  A Tag or a Mobile Phone transmits BLE packets at regular intervals •  Locator(s) transmit(s) BLE packets at regular intervals by using a switched antenna array •  Locator(s) receive(s) the packet by using a switched antenna array and provides measurements to a centralized localization server •  A Mobile Phone receives the packet(s) and calculates its own position Locator TAG Locator Phone AoD AoA RF switch RF switch BLE TRX BLE TRX BLE TRX AoA = Angle of Arrival Nokia Research Center 18 Nokia Internal Use Only BLE TRX AoD = Angle of Departure
  19. 19. Localization Principle with a Single Locator z Using a single antenna and TX / RX fixed mobile height, mobile can resolve its 2D location zm hm = 1.2-1.4 m θ hm xm ym φ y RX / TX TX: transmitter x RX: receiver Nokia Research Center 19 Nokia Internal Use Only
  20. 20. Localization Principle with Multiple Locators z z TX / RX TX / RX θ2 Using multiple positioning beacons, mobile can resolve its 3D location or increasing the position zm θ1 reliability and accuracy xm x ym RX / TX φ1 φ2 TX: transmitter x Nokia Research Center 20 Nokia Internal Use Only RX: receiver
  21. 21. Server-Centric configuration Locator (in receive mode) Positioning Server 3GPP WLAN BLE Tag BLE phone Map + PCL Nokia Research Center 21 Nokia Internal Use Only
  22. 22. Mobile-Centric configuration One way communication is sufficient between the mobile and the locator; i.e. time synchronization is not needed Locator (in broadcast mode) Map + PCL Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) 2.4 GHz Broadcast 3GPP WLAN …. Handset with HAIP onboard (network connection) Nokia Research Center 22 Nokia Internal Use Only
  23. 23. HAIP Benefits •  Small power consumption •  Offers high accuracy; ~1 m in large open indoor areas and 0.3m in office space •  No calibration required •  No synchronization required •  Provides clearly better accuracy and reliability than fingerprinting based WiFi positioning technologies •  Specific to Server-Centric approach   Tags are small, cheap, and have low power consumption   Tags can be commanded to become active for real-time tracking •  Specific to Mobile-Centric approach   Beacons may be battery powered and standalone (no network connection required)   Allows unlimited number of mobiles to position themselves   No network dependence => no cost, no latency, no privacy concern   No additional HW required in the phone Nokia Research Center 23 Nokia Internal Use Only
  24. 24. HAIP Experimental results Real path Measured path Positioning Beacon X Nokia Research Center 24 Nokia Internal Use Only
  25. 25. HAIP Demonstrations & Videos Nokia Research Center 25 Nokia Internal Use Only
  26. 26. HAIP Technology Status •  Current prototypes are built by modifying the Bluetooth Low Energy standard •  Discussions initiated late 2010 about standardizing the technology as part of future versions of Bluetooth •  BT SIG as standardization proceeding •  Stage 1 passed; i.e. MRD & FRD (Market and Feature Requirements Document) •  Technical standardization work on going in 2012 •  Estimated availability of chipsets starting in 2013 onwards, presuming successful standardization •  Industry consortium under planning to support infrastructure ecosystem creation •  Verification of new business opportunities and creation of joint industry solution •  Pre-commercial pilots during 2012 being planned by Nokia •  No information currently available on product schedules Nokia Research Center 26 Nokia Internal Use Only
  27. 27. Example of hybrid positioning system Nokia Research Center 27 Nokia Internal Use Only
  28. 28. Pedestrian Dead Reckoning TARGET: to evaluate the performance of a Nokia made sensorbox for PDR •  Nokia sensor boxes were calibrated and characterized against commercial MicroStrain IMUs •  Plain PDR relies on step detection and requires step length calibration for the user •  But: in hybrid positioning case step length calibration can be handled automatically Nokia Research Center 28 Nokia Internal Use Only
  29. 29. Motivation •  Solutions for outdoor positioning do not directly apply indoors, and other easily deployable approaches are needed MicroStrain 3DM-GX2 www.microstrain.com •  With development of MEMS technology and sensors inertial navigation show some promises •  No infra required  fill the gaps •  Through inertial navigation the distance and heading of the user is tracked from a known initial position and direction •  therefore inertial navigation alone will not suffice, but complementary aids are needed Nokia Research Center Nokia Internal Use Only 29
  30. 30. Approach •  Complementary Kalman filter tracks the error states of 15 parameters: position, velocity, attitude, gyro and accelerometer biases (all in 3 dimensions) *) •  Map information can be taken into account through particle filter •  Pros: No need for separate step calibration, but it’s ready to go •  Cons: Computational costs Nokia Research Center See details in E.Foxlin: “Pedestrian tracking with shoe-mounted inertial sensor”, Proc. IEEE Comp. Graphics, 2005. *) Nokia Internal Use Only 30
  31. 31. Results •  Only inertial navigation, no map info used •  Initial position and direction of motion needed Begin & End End Begin Nokia Research Center 31 Nokia Internal Use Only
  32. 32. Results •  Climbing up the staircase •  Only inertial navigation, no map info used 5th floor 4th floor 3rd floor 2nd floor 1st floor Nokia Research Center Nokia Internal Use Only 32
  33. 33. Fusion filter and hybrid positioning system TARGET: improved accuracy, reliability and reduced complexity of calculations of hybrid positioning system Nokia Research Center 33 Nokia Internal Use Only PDR + HAIP + Fusion filter running on PC
  34. 34. An example of the particle initialization •  Angle-based location probability matrix covering the room where multi-antenna array is located. •  The corresponding particle distribution within the room. Nokia Research Center 34 Nokia Internal Use Only
  35. 35. Fusion filter Nokia Research Center 35 Nokia Internal Use Only
  36. 36. Example results Fusion of map and PDR in cafeteria •  PDR route clearly deviates, but it is corrected by fusion filter •  very detailed location and route shape information in HAIP enabled area thanks to sensor PDR route Full fusion of map, HAIP and PDR around auditorium Nokia Research Center In errorless PDR case this point should be (0,0): now there is about 8 m error after walking around auditorium 36 Nokia Internal Use Only
  37. 37. Example Results Using map data in the fusion filter helps improving data quality, at least in a dense indoor environment Nokia Research Center 37 Nokia Internal Use Only
  38. 38. BLE proximity Positioning Nokia Research Center 38 Nokia Internal Use Only
  39. 39. BLE Proximity Positioning Concept description •  Applicable on BLE devices: with BLE tags: •  Tags put on known positions and used as anchor nodes •  Only tag address + RSSI is used, data payload arbitrary •  Any BT or BLE device usable •  Tags used as anchor nodes; e.g. Place one in each room •  The appplication runs on Nokia N9 devices and it uses the BLE chip already on board of the device to detect the HAIP BLE tags •  Different algoritms for positioning •  Tag with strongest RSSI (room environment) •  Interpolation for multiple tags (open space) Nokia Research Center 39 Nokia Internal Use Only
  40. 40. Beneficts •  The system uses standard Bluetooth 4.0 technology •  Tags •  time life 1-2 years, practically no maintenance needed •  Easy installation •  They can be hidden without altering the appearance of the indoor environment •  No cabling needed, not even power cable •  Effectively, their installation is as simple as install fire alarms •  NO system maintenance •  The positioning system does not need to be calibrated •  NO Finger Printing data and/or radio maps (as for WLAN positioning) needed •  Nokia Research has develop a simple tool allowing anyone to deploy and set up its own BLE proximity positioning system. •  Part of this work is done in cooperation with NAVTEQ Research where also integration to indoor maps is taken into account Nokia Research Center 40 Nokia Internal Use Only
  41. 41. Thank You ! •  F. Belloni, V. Ranki, A. Kainulainen, and A. Richter, "Angle-based Indoor Positioning System for Open Indoor Environments", Proceeding of Workshop on Positioning, Navigation and Communication (WPNC), Hannover, Germany, 2009. •  P. Kemppi, J. Pajunen, V. Ranki, F. Belloni, T. Rautiainen, ”Hybrid positioning system combining angle-based localization, pedestrian dead reckoning, and map-filtering”, International Conf. on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), Zurich, Switzerland, 2010. •  P. Kemppi, J. Pajunen, T. Rautiainen, “Use of Artificial Magnetic Anomalies in Indoor Pedestrian Navigation”, Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2010-Fall), Ottawa, Canada, 2010 •  Link to video demonstration of HAIP: http://research.nokia.com/news/9505 •  HAIP in 3D configuration: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bpf8xL4g37o Nokia Research Center 41 Nokia Internal Use Only
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