CarthageAncient Phoen. City – Modeled after most Ancient Greek city states. Was probably founded in the 8th C BCCarthage had expanded not only across North Africa but had control of the Belearic Islands, Sardinia, Corsica, and much of SicilyMassive ports which allowed for Carthage to become very powerful. They were “Rome’s competitor” in trading. And had already many trading posts. Carthaginian merchants went from one end of the Mediterranean to the other, the city's fleets were huge, and its army was one of the best in the ancient worldCarthage was much like Rome in conquering people and integrating them into their own ranks of society. – Rome saw Carthage as the “Great Other”…. Other…… people who are not Roman…. Eventually becoming the “great enemy” Punic was the term Romans used for Carthagians
Carthage did own a large portion of Sicily for during the 260’s. Rome didn’t care for sicily it had very little Rome would be interested in. when a complicated little dispute arose in the city of Messana (toe of boot hits soccer ball) in 264, and one side appealed to Carthage while the other appealed to Rome, no one thought it was any more than a local quarrelMessana was a port city controlling the Straits and so when a Carthaginian fleet was invited in by one side, Rome felt it had to respond in some way. (MAP)Punic Admiral retreats, and is not received well back in Carthage.
Several Small battles that Rome won on land in Sicily This was a much large war/battle then what Rome was use to in the past, and the vastness of it was unexpectedBut the majority of the War was fought at Sea – Note from the beginning Carthage had a strong navy. Rome made many mistakes in this war, and suffered terrible losses for it. Romans were not sailors, and they lost more ships in the war than did Carthage--600 ships lost over the course of 20 years. Every time Rome won a significant victory, the advantage was frittered away by incompetent generals or a timid Senate. One of the great weaknesses of the Republic was that it elected new generals every year, a system that served well enough except in times of extended crises. What problems would arise with a new general every year?Rome had to figure out a way to beat the Carthagians. Romans better at land battle… how could they become better with battles at sea?
It took the Romans a while to realise, they were far better at land battle verse the seaSo they developed a crane called the corvus (Latin for crow), which upon getting close to a Punic ship it would be lowered and the Romans would run across turning a sea combat to a land combatThis development aided the Romans drastically since Carthaginians were not as good at land battles. Carthage would resign from the war… or give up/surrender and the Romans Won the First Punic War. The city itself, however, remained unconquered. And merchant fleets continued to generate wealthHow did the first punic war aid rome for later wars?
Rome imposed a heavy indemnity on Carthage, to compensate her for her losses. She also forced Carthage to give up all claims to Sicily. as the result of this war, Rome won an easy income and a new province. It was the first step in the creation of the Roman empire. Started to expand into Gaul Territory (to the west). Next ruler of Carthage was sponsored by Rome, and acted like a puppet Rome had access to the largest fleet in the Med. Romans learned how to make war at sea.It is too much to say they learned to be sailors--even at the end of the Republic, they were still hiring Greeks to captain their ships--but they learned how to conduct naval warfare in an Roman fashion.Rome learned, too, how to conduct war on a massive scale. The Senate learned how to finance such a war, how to find the men for the armies, how to find the supplies, how to build fleets (over and over), how to conduct politics on the home front in times of war.
The peace treaty had put Carthage in an impossible position. Carthage had to fight to regain her position or wither away to insignificance, a fate she would not accept willingly. Moreover, Rome continued to be aggressive, acquiring Corsica in the 220s.HamilcarBarca. This member of a noble Carthaginian family conquered much of Spain for CarthaginiansThis including Spanish army and skills in field warfare that they didn’t have during the first Punic WarHamilcar hated Rome and longed to be the man who would avenge the shame of the First Punic War. As the years went by, however, he began to realize it was not fated for him, and he taught his son both his skill in battle and his hatred of Rome.
Not a Cannibal or Anthony Hopkins for that matter (though he is that old) Hamilcar died when Hannibal was still a young man. The son spent some time dealing with the inevitable rebellions, but quickly established himself as an even greater leader than his father. Hannibal was, by all accounts both ancient and modern, a military geniusHannibal was determined to fight Rome, a war that he viewed as inevitable. He was concerned to fight at a time propitious to himself and to Carthage, and he was determined to fight the war on Carthaginian terms
Rome's great strength was her nearly endless reserves of manpower, the result of her system of alliances throughout Italy. But those alliances were exploitative; Rome's allies were unhappy with their treatment and unhappy with Rome's seemingly endless wars. Because of this Hannibal decides to Invade Italy/RomeWhy would he invade Italy and not the Allies/Colonies of Italy/Rome?believed the Italian allies were so deeply disaffected that he would only have to win a few early victories and proclaim the liberty of the Italian allies, and they would desert Rome. Hannibal was gambling on these two things:early and convincing victories, and the defection of the Italian allies. War came in 218, when a quarrel broke out over the Roman colony of Saguntum. The Romans believed they could easily contain Hannibal in Spain, but he gave the Roman army the slip and was across the Pyrenees almost before the Romans knew what had happenedImg – due to lack of imagery at the time, limited to recreations from MUCH later time periods interpretation images
Romans tried to keep Hannibal in Spain – cutting them off at New CarthageHannibal slips by and takes SaguntumSaguntum appealed for aid from Rome and follows through the PryeneesMtn S of France. Leading to the Alps Hannibal decided he was going to run the roman ragged, creating a wild goose chase all over italy and keeping in constant war until 202BCE
Hannibal's march into Italy is legendary. The Roman Senate felt secure from land invasion and took too few precautions b/c: There was Hannibal in Spain. He had to fight his way through a Roman army, cross the Pyrenees (themselves a difficult range of mountains), then fight his way across southern France, for this area was under Roman control, then cross the formidable Alps.When word came that Hannibal had escaped from Spain, Rome was concerned but not panicked. The Senate sent a second army to hold the bridges in France (Rhone River). This river is deep and swift in its lower courses. The Romans were sure they could prevent Hannibal from crossing, then defeat him in their own good time in southern.Hannibal fooled them. He sent his brother northward, avoiding Roman sentries, and crossed the river on pontoons and by swimming. Ambushed the Gauls who were supposed to be guarding that crossing, then Hannibal followed with the rest of his army. He even got the elephants across on a ferry by building a large raft and covering it with earth so that the beasts thought they were still on solid ground. He was across the Rhône and now nothing stood between him and Italy. Except the Alps.
mountains themselves were dangerous, of course, but they were made even more dangerous by the fact that local tribes cheerfully fought anyone who entered their mountains, so Hannibal had to fight his way over the mountains. He arrived in Italy with only 26,000 men and about two dozen elephants. So, while it is true that Hannibal brought his elephants across the Alps, he did so only at great lossHannibal lost many prior to successfully crossing the alps, he wasn’t one for keeping track of his numbers He arrived in Italy with only 26,000 men and about two dozen elephants. This was the first crucial test of his war strategy: he proclaimed the liberty of the Gaul, those Germanic tribes who had settled in northern Italy and who had not been long under Roman rule. Few rallied to Hannibal's call. This did not dismay him, for he knew that he would have to prove his ability to defend them before they would risk Rome's wrath.
Talked about Hannibal escaping many romans attempts Both Consuls sent to meet the carthaginians. Hannibal out numbers 2:1 (remember hannibal has 20k men) Trebbia river --- another of Hannibals tricks on the Romans Hannibal did not want to actually cross this river but at the same time needed another victoryStarted an attack, when the romans advanced towards them Hannibal’s troops would retreat forcing the Romans to Cross this river.Keep in mind it is now winter and some sources say it was even raining, the river would be chest deep. – Result?The Roman troops emerged on the other side cold and half frozen. Hannibal also had part of his Calvary hiding, which partway into the battle would come out and attack the Romans from behind Of 40k romans only 10k were able to return to romeSeeing some success… Hannibal was beginning to gain more support from gaelic (northern tribes, gauls, goths, etc)
The Romans quickly fielded another army, for the heart of Roman strength was in central and southern Italy. This second army met Hannibal at Lake Trasimene (217). Once again Hannibal outfoxed them, destroying another consular armyRoman armys were yet again defeated here. Hannibal was able to out smart them in battle In a single year, Hannibal had destroyed two full Roman armies. But the political side of his equation was not in fact working. The Italian allies did not leave the side of the Romans. He had gain some support but not as much as he figured. Spite the failled battle thus far Rome was a strong force, and allies knew this from coming up against them themselves and did not want to go up against the Romans againRome still has armies and Rome itself was no conquered – Hannibal needed spontaneous military success, was worried that Rome would wait before engaging in next battle – why would this be a worry?Roman politics played directly into his hands. Roman consuls were elected annually. A consulship was the pinnacle of a great man's political career, and the crowning glory was to fight some great battle during one's tenure of office. The consuls for the year 216 campaigned on the promise of sure victory.The previous consuls had been fools, had played to Hannibal's strengths. – falling into Hannibals traps getting cornered, rather then plotting how to take him outbring hannibal to open battle where the strength of Roman arms would overwhelm him.
Show film – History Network.com Battle of Cannae So, in 216, once again Roman consuls led Roman armies against HannibalHow Many men did the Romans have for CannaeThe Senate voted them double armies; with a normal consular army normally at 20,000, a double army would be 40,000Since both consuls were operating together, this should have produced 80,000 men -- odds were in favour of the Romans right?We know Hannibal uses trickery in his fighting. How was that achieved in the Battle of Cannae?Field was wide open… Romans thought there would be no chance of surpriseThe Roman Front was significance larger than the Carthage front Roman had kept their strength in the center Romans lacked formation – rememberOn the Flank sides of the Carthage side was Calvary and pike men (as seen in vid)Came around and attacked from behind… circling around the large roman ArmyRomans – no formation remember – tight together couldn’t get away or maneuver The Battle of Cannae has served as a classic example of a double-envelopment maneuver, a way for an inferior force to defeat a superior force on open terrain. Hannibal's tactics at Cannae are still studied in military academiesResults of the Battle
Cities started to switch sides. – Rome lost its second biggest city. Capua but even spite this Rome held the majority of its supporting citieshannibal knew that rome would continuously return to battle if Rome had enough alliance support FabiusMaximus was again given command of a Roman army and he again employed his tactics of harassment; this is still known as Fabian tactics. He played an important role in keeping the allies close, for he used his much-reduced army to protect cities from attack by Hannibal. Rome was able to build up her strength once again. By the year 212, Rome had twenty-five legions (about eight consular armies) in the field.212 was perhaps the height of Hannibal's strength in Italy, but in reality he had lost when Rome did not collapse after Cannae.212 -211 – Rome and Carthage ravaged the country side in attempts to starve the other out Hannibal, moreover, began to use force to terrorize cities into alliance with him – which would gain him the reputation of blood thirsty and ruthlessRoman goal to keep Hannibal confined to the southWhy would romans keep the carthginians in the Southern part of italy?What is the one thing that Rome so far has not tried to get rid of Hannibal?
In 205, Scipio ran for consul on the platform that he could defeat Carthage and bring the long war to a close. His success in Spain helped, and he won. He gathered a large army of volunteers and landed in Africa in 204.From the time he landed, Carthage began appealing to Hannibal to return to Africa. This was no small trick, for the Romans were waiting for Hannibal to do just thatHannibal had to find a way to get his 20,000 men to a seaport undetected by Roman armiesIt took two years of maneuvering before he was able to accomplish the fleet. Much to the dismay of Rome, in 202 Hannibal escaped from Italy with his army intact. He returned to Carthage and raised more troops locally, then turned to meet Scipio.
The two met near Zama, about a hundred miles south of Carthage. Both sides had about 25,000 men. For once, the Romans had the better cavalry, for Scipio had brought with him his superb Spanish horesement. But what doeshannibal have access to?But Hannibal, on home ground in Africa now, had his elephants - elephants, specially trained, and Hannibal staked the battle on them. He ranged his elephants, perhaps a hundred or so, in front of his infantryIt must have been terrifying to the Romans, but Scipio had prepared them. He knew of Hannibal's plans and had his own plan in place.
He had his troops spread in normal battle formation. When the elephants charged, the men re-formed into columns, leaving wide alleys betweenTo aid the elephants, the men were instructed to shout, bang metal on metal, and general make as much noise as possible, causing the beasts to shy away from the noise and into the alley ways. And as they went passed, archers shot at their riders. With great faith in their commander, the Roman troops executed the plan perfectly. The elephants passed right through the Roman lines. While the beasts eventually got turned back around, was utterly ineffective
Scipio used much the same tactics at Zama as Hannibal had at Cannae. He allowed his infantry to give way while his cavalry executed a flanking maneuver. The cavalry was almost immediately successful. The Carthaginian infantry fought hard, though, and the battle lasted most of the day. In the end, Hannibal was defeated so completely that he immediately returned to Carthage and advised the city to surrender
Finally!! In 202 BC Rome's second war with Carthage came to an end. Rome again forced Carthage to pay a terrible price: this time, Carthage had to give up her entire empire:Spain, the islands, North Africa, her navy, her army, all of it was either gone or drastically reduced.Carthage was allowed no foreign policy but became a client of Rome. Indeed, a ditch marked the limits of Carthaginian territorypart of the peace treaty that should armed Carthaginians cross that border it automatically meant war with RomeHannibal himself went east, forbidden to live in his native cityWhen Hannibal finally died, somewhat mysteriously and before his time, it was believed that he had been poisoned, either at the behest of the Senate or by an eastern king seeking to curry favor with the Senate
The Second Punic War was a turning point in Roman history, with profound implications for the Republic. The most immediate and obvious effect was the acquisition of empire: in the space of fifty years Rome had acquired most of the western Mediterranean. The Republic now had to adjust its finances, administration, foreign policy and alliance system to rule these new territoriesRome had to keep large numbers of men in the army in order to secure them. The army therefore continued to play a crucial role in every aspect of Roman society, for it was the keystone of the empireThe only power left in the Mediterranean was Greece, and it was only a matter of time before these two clashed – Macedonian Wars 4 of them
Despite all the penalties and all the impediments, Carthage recovered economicallyRome had taken away its empire and the financial burden that went with it, but had left carth. free to pursue trade as she willed.Carth. Paid back rome by the middle of the 2nd CThis did not set well with many Roman senators. Rome had acquired a good deal of fertile land along the coast of North Africa, and a number of senators had invested in olives and grain there. But these were goods in which Carthage traded as well, and Carthage was rather better at it.A faction within the Senate, led by Cato the Elder, began to agitate against Carthage. Was it right, they asked, that Carthage should prosper while Romans toiled? Was Carthage's new prosperity not potentially dangerous? After all, the city had twice troubled Rome. And, in any case, Carthage was harming Roman mercantile interestsCato began to urge that the only sure defense against a resurgent Carthage was to destroy it. Rome would never be safe so long as Carthage stood. He made a campaign of it: Carthagodelendaest! -- Carthage must be destroyed! – would constantly be coming up in senate
In the end, Cato got his wish. I might claim that Rome went to war simply to hush the old boy up, but alas Carthage gave Rome all the excuse it needed.The neighboring African tribes learned soon enough that the Carthaginians did not dare to cross the Roman-imposed frontier. They learned to raid the Punic hinterland, then race across the border to perfect safety. These raids gradually became serious and Carthage chose finally to defend itselfCarthage re-armed. In 149 the tribesmen again raided, but this time a Punic army followed them and destroyed their camps. With Cato's slogan ringing in their ears, with their jealousy of Carthage's economic success, the Roman senate decreed that the terms of the treaty had been violated and it duly declared warit took three years. The Romans dithered and competed for the honor of victory, while the people of Carthage fought fiercely, knowing their fate. The great city walls were not breached until 146, and it took a week of street fighting for the Romans to work their way to the citadel. After some further resistance, the starving garrison surrenderedSo ended the Third Punic War. It had no real consequences, other than the destruction of the city became legendary (among the legends was that the earth around Carthage was salted so nothing could grow -- not so). Also note the end of the 4thMacedonean war 146 – Rome could cover two fronts at once
1. The Punic Wars
2. Carthage Ancient Phoenician City Fertile interior land Massive port Produced the best Navy Known to Rome as the “Great Other”
3. Origins of the 1st Punic war Carthage owned part of Sicily “Small” dispute in Messana One side went to Rome for aid and the other went to Carthage Carthage was allowed to Messana Rome Felt obligated to respond.
4. 1st Punic War (264 – 250BCE) Majority of the war was fought at sea Rome had made many mistakes during this war ◦ They were not sailors ◦ Loss of many ◦ fleets ◦ Election of ◦ New General ◦ annually
5. 1st Punic War Romans were always better at Land battle Development of the “Corvus” Plank of wood between boats
6. Results of 1st War Rome implemented consequences on Carthage: ◦ Give up Sicily ◦ Puppet Ruler Rome learned new tactics for war at sea Learned to conduct war on Grand Scale
7. Origins of the 2nd Punic War Peace Treaty with Rome proved difficult Rome was invading Corsica Hamilcar Barca ◦ Conquered much of Spain ◦ Despised Rome wanted to have vengeance for Hamilcar was getting to Carthage old for battle. Trained his son.
8. Hannibal Hannibal was quite young when he became a leader Military Genius ◦ Ancient and Modern Tactics Marched on Rome at the age of 25 Wanted to fight on Carthaginian terms
9. 2nd Punic War Rome had an “endless” supply of manpower Rome had many alliances Allies were tired of Roman Treatment and Endless wars. Hannibal decided to invade Italy itself War broke out
10. 2nd Punic War
11. 2nd Punic War - Alps Hannibal’s march in to Italy Roman’s were not prepared for land invasion As Hannibal progressed out of Spain, Romans were not “threatened” Rhone River in France
12. 2nd Punic War - Alps Crossing the Alps – 217 BCE Dangerous 2 reasons: ◦ The weather/Ecology of the Mountains ◦ Tribes they encountered “Freed” the Gaul and other Germanic tribes of Northern Italy
13. 2nd Punic War Roman react sending both Consuls to meet Carthage forces Trebbia River, Hannibal tricked the Romans
14. 2nd Punic War Romans recouped, and met Hannibal a second time. Lake Trasimene. ◦ Defeat Rome ◦ Still not receiving as much aid Annual elections – 216 elections. ◦ Would new consuls better Rome’s chance?
15. Battle of Cannae
16. Results Of Cannae 212 BCE Rome rebuiltan army. 212 – 211 ◦ Rome and Carthage attempts to starve each other• Hannibal began to terrorize cities• Roman’s goal to keep Hannibal in the South part of Italy
17. Publius Cornelius ScipioAfricanus Ran for Consul 205 BCE Would attack Carthage 204 Carthage appealed for Hannibal to return Hannibal took 2 years to get back to Carthage. Hannibal was able to raise more troops
18. Battle of Zama Both side had about the same number of men. Romans had the better cavalry Hannibal, on home ground in Africa now, had his elephants Scipio knew how Hannibal fought with trickery Roman troops were prepared
19. End of the Second Punic War VICTORY!!!
20. Results of 2nd Punic War Turning point for Rome & Republic During the past 50 years Rome gained control over the majority of the Mediterrannean Republic had to adjust: ◦ Fiances ◦ Administration ◦ Foreign Policy ◦ Alliance system Later Rome would have to face Greece
21. 3rd Punic War Carthage recovered economicall y The Roman Senate felt threaten Cato – Senate to campaign with the slogan: Started Elder Carthago Delenda Est! (Carthage must be detroyed)
22. 3rd Punic War Cato got his way Rome marched on Carthage Carthage avoided 149 BCE – Carthage defends itself. fighting at first 3 years of fighting, Carthage city walls were breached Rome was victorious Destruction of Carthage – Salted the Land