Chapter 9 – Cellular Growth pp. 244-246
Sizes of Different Cells <ul><li>Red blood cell – 8 um </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve cell (large animals) – 1um </li></ul><ul><l...
Cell Size Limits <ul><li>Cells can  metabolize  only as quickly as they can diffuse nutrients, oxygen and wastes. </li></u...
Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio <ul><li>As a cell’s size increases, its volume increases much faster than its surface area. <...
Surface-to-Volume Ratio in Cells Cell Size (cm) 1 x 1 x 1 2 x 2 x 2 4 x 4 x 4 Volume 1cm 3 8 cm 3 64 cm 3 Surface Area 6 c...
When cell size doubles: <ul><li>Cell requires 8 times more nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Has 8 times more waste to excrete ...
When Do Cells Divide? <ul><li>Many of the cells in your body are growing, dividing, and dying. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts and ...
Chromosomes ‘ Chroma’ means colored. ‘ Soma’ means body.
Chromosome Structure <ul><li>A rod-shaped structure that forms when a single DNA molecule and its proteins coil tightly be...
Number of Chromosomes  Penicillium 1-4 Mosquito 6 Carrot 18 Garden pea 20 Frog 26 Cat 32 Earthworm 36 Human 46 Chimpanzee ...
Adder’s Tongue Fern
 
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Chpt9.1 cellular growth

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Chpt9.1 cellular growth

  1. 1. Chapter 9 – Cellular Growth pp. 244-246
  2. 2. Sizes of Different Cells <ul><li>Red blood cell – 8 um </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve cell (large animals) – 1um </li></ul><ul><li>Largest known cell – ostrich egg yolk </li></ul><ul><li>(8 cm diameter) </li></ul><ul><li>Most cells are between 2 and 200 um in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>um = micrometer </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cell Size Limits <ul><li>Cells can metabolize only as quickly as they can diffuse nutrients, oxygen and wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion is fast and efficient over short distances, but becomes slow and inefficient as the distances become larger . </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the ability of the cell to communicate instructions for cellular functions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio <ul><li>As a cell’s size increases, its volume increases much faster than its surface area. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Surface-to-Volume Ratio in Cells Cell Size (cm) 1 x 1 x 1 2 x 2 x 2 4 x 4 x 4 Volume 1cm 3 8 cm 3 64 cm 3 Surface Area 6 cm 2 24 cm 2 96 cm 2 Surface-to-Volume Ratio 6 3 1.5
  6. 6. When cell size doubles: <ul><li>Cell requires 8 times more nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Has 8 times more waste to excrete </li></ul><ul><li>Surface area only increases by 4 times so the plasma membrane would not have enough surface area through which O 2 and nutrients could diffuse. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell would either starve or be poisoned from the buildup of waste products. To prevent this, the cell divides. </li></ul>
  7. 7. When Do Cells Divide? <ul><li>Many of the cells in your body are growing, dividing, and dying. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts and bruises are healing. </li></ul><ul><li>Intestines are producing millions of new cells each second. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chromosomes ‘ Chroma’ means colored. ‘ Soma’ means body.
  9. 9. Chromosome Structure <ul><li>A rod-shaped structure that forms when a single DNA molecule and its proteins coil tightly before cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>If DNA did not coil, a single strand of DNA would be about 5 cm long (2 inches). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Number of Chromosomes Penicillium 1-4 Mosquito 6 Carrot 18 Garden pea 20 Frog 26 Cat 32 Earthworm 36 Human 46 Chimpanzee 48 Gorilla 48 Orangutan 48 Amoeba 50 Sand Dollar 52 Horse 64 Dog 78 Adder’s tongue fern 1262
  11. 11. Adder’s Tongue Fern

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