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  1. 1. Chapter 2 - Principles of Ecology
  2. 2. 2.1 Organisms &Their Relationships
  3. 3. What is Ecology?Scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environmentsReveals interrelationships between living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) parts of the worldCombines information from math, chemistry, physics, geology, other branches of biology
  4. 4. Ecology Video
  5. 5. Biospherebio = life, sphere = areathe portion of Earth that supports lifeextends from high in the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean
  6. 6. Biotic factorsbio = life, tic = relating toall living organisms that inhabit an environmentexamples: animals (humans), Plants, Protists, Bacteria, fungi
  7. 7. Abiotic factorsa = notnonliving parts of the environment that effect living thingsexamples: air currents, water currents, temperature, water pressure, rocks, sand, soil, moisture, light
  8. 8. Abiotic Factors Video
  9. 9. Levels of Organization (p. 36)OrganismPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiomeBiosphere
  10. 10. Organisms an individual living thing
  11. 11. Populations group of organisms of one species living in the same place at the same time that interbreed, compete with one another for food, water, mates, and other resources; a change in one population will affect other populations No population of organisms of one species lives independently of other species.
  12. 12. Communities made up of several populations interacting with each other
  13. 13. Ecosystem all the biotic and abiotic factors in an area the interactions among the populations in a community and the community’s physical surroundings, or abiotic factors
  14. 14. Terrestrial Ecosystemslocated on landexamples: Forests Meadows Desert
  15. 15. Aquatic Ecosystemsfresh water ecosystems  examples: ponds, lakes, and streamssalt water (marine) ecosystems  examples: oceans, seas, large lakes “Great Salt Lake”
  16. 16. BiomeEcosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communitiesEx. Marine biome
  17. 17. Biospherethe entire planet and all its living and nonliving parts and how everything interacts
  18. 18. HabitatPlace where an organism lives its lifeCan change or even disappearOrganisms must adapt to the changes or they will die.
  19. 19. Niche p. 38the role a species plays in a communityalthough several species may share a habitat, the food, shelter, and other resources are divided into separate niches
  20. 20. Niche examples:coyotes in a grassland community help keep down the rodent populationfungi in a forest helps breakdown of organic matter contained in the bodies of dead organisms to recycle nutrients
  21. 21. Symbiosis“living together”the relationship in which there is a close and permanent association between organisms of different speciesdifferent kinds of symbiosis:
  22. 22. Commensalismone species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited
  23. 23. Commensalismexample: large trees such as oaks provide a habitat for Spanish moss
  24. 24.  Remoras live very close to sharks. The shark does not bother the remora, but the remora eats the leftover food the shark drops or does not eat.
  25. 25. Mutualismboth species benefitAnts and Acacia Tree
  26. 26. Mutualism An unidentified crab that carries a venomous sea urchin for protection. The crab uses its rear legs to hold the urchin in place. The urchin receives transportation.
  27. 27.  The Sponge Crab is wearing a "hat" that consists of a living sponge colony. The sponge gains transportation while the crab gains a disguise.
  28. 28.  The Tomato Anemone Fish lives among the Sea Anemone. It gains protection from predators while the anemone gains dinner.
  29. 29. Parasitismone species is harmed, but usually does not kill the hostexamples: tapeworms, roundworms, ticks, fleas
  30. 30.  Isopods are crustaceans, some of which are parasites. Isopods known as "fish lice" attach themselves to their host and feed on its body fluids.
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