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Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers
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Chpt. 11.2 complex inheritance leftovers

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  • 1. Complex Patterns of Inheritance
  • 2. Sickle-cell anemia
    • Autosomal recessive trait
    • 1 in 12 African Americans (black Americans whose families originated in Africa) is heterozygous (carrier)
    • Common in white Americans whose families originated in the countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
  • 3.
    • Person suffers from anemia (low # rbc)
    • Abnormally shaped cells slow blood flow, block small vessels, and results in tissue damage and pain
    • Have other serious health problems because of the impaired circulation
    • Treatments – blood transfusion and drug therapy
  • 4.  
  • 5. Sex Determination
    • Sex chromosomes determine an individual’s gender.
    • Humans have 23 pair (46 total) of chromosomes in each of somatic cells
    • 22 are autosomes
    • The 23rd pair are sex chromosomes
      • XX = female
      • XY = male
  • 6. Dosage Compensation
    • The X chromosome carries a variety of genes that are necessary for the development of both females and males.
    • The Y chromosome mainly has genes that relate to the development of male characteristics.
  • 7. Chromosome Inactivation
    • Chromosome Inactivation- random inactivation of the X chromosome.
    • Example – calico cat
    • One X chromosome codes for orange fur and one X chromosome codes for black fur.
  • 8. Sex linked traits
    • Sex-linked traits (X-linked)- traits controlled by genes located on the X chromosome.
    • X-linked inheritance - passed on by the female – even if recessive, the trait is expressed because the male does not pass an X for a dominant allele.
    • Ex: Color blindness and hemophilia
  • 9.  
  • 10. Muscular dystrophy is a deadly disorder in which the muscles grow progressively weaker. The disease is caused by a recessive gene on the X chromosome
  • 11. Polygenic Inheritance
    • Polygenic Inheritance- pattern of a trait that is controlled by two or more genes
    • Genes may be on the same chromosome or different chromosome
    • All heterozygotes are intermediate in phenotype
  • 12. Polygenic Inheritance
    • Inheritance pattern of a trait that is controlled by two or more genes
    • Skin color, eye color
    • Will express a range of colors (intermediate)
  • 13. Environmental Influences
    • The environment also has an effect on phenotype. As organisms develop many factors influence how genes will be expressed
    • 2 environmental influences
    • Internal environment- Male and females express traits differently due to hormones
    • -Horn size in rams, feather color in peacocks
    • -Age affects how genes function
    • External environment- Temperature, nutrition, light, chemicals, and infectious agents

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