Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Section 8.2 – Photosynthesis pp. 222-227
Photosynthesis occurs in two phases. Cellular Energy 1.  Light reactions (Light-dependent reaction)  2. Calvin Cycle (Ligh...
Chloroplasts The light reactions takes place in the grana with the thylakoids inside the cholorplast.  Grana (stacks in th...
 
4.  Stroma  6.  thylakoid membrane  7. grana  8. thylakoid
Pigments- light absorbing colored molecules that are found in the thylakoid membrane. Major light-absorbing pigments in pl...
Accessory Pigments There are 2 types of carotenoids 1. Carotenes- orange pigments 2.Xanthophylls- yellow pigments -Trap en...
Phase One: Light reaction overview -Light-dependent reactions -Light energy is converted to  chemical  energy -Split water...
Phase One:  Light Reactions 1 st  step – absorption of light by chloroplasts (located in the cells of leaves)
2 nd  step in Phase 1- Electron Transport Chain - When electrons absorb enough energy, they leave the chlorophyll molecule...
 
Phase Two: Calvin cycle overview   -Light –independent  reaction -Forms simple sugars using carbon  from CO 2  and H 2  to...
The Calvin Cycle -A plant produces ATP and NADPH + H +   Carbon fixation  - an enzyme adds the carbon atom of CO 2  to a 5...
Calvin Cycle (Cont.) -ATP and H 2  from the light reactions are needed for the Calvin Cycle  -a plant produces carbohydrat...
CO 2  enters leaves and stems of green plants through pores called  stomata
Chemosynthesis <ul><li>a process in which an  autotroph  obtains energy from inorganic compounds instead of from sunlight ...
Stage Starting Materials Ending Materials Light Reactions CO 2 H 2 O Light energy H 2 O 2 ATP Calvin Cycle (Light-Independ...
 
 
Factors That Can Affect Photosynthesis <ul><li>Water   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A shortage of water can slow or stop photosyn...
C 4  Plants occurs in plants like corn & sugarcane helps plants maintain photosynthesis while minimizing water loss fix ca...
CAM Plants occurs in water-conserving plants living in deserts, salt marshes, etc. where water is limited examples: cacti,...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter 8 2 Photosynthesis

2,248

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,248
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
29
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Chapter 8 2 Photosynthesis"

  1. 1. Section 8.2 – Photosynthesis pp. 222-227
  2. 2. Photosynthesis occurs in two phases. Cellular Energy 1. Light reactions (Light-dependent reaction) 2. Calvin Cycle (Light-independent reactions Overview of Photosynthesis
  3. 3. Chloroplasts The light reactions takes place in the grana with the thylakoids inside the cholorplast. Grana (stacks in thylakoid membranes)- where light-dependent reactions take place Thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyll (light absorbing pigment ) Stroma-fluid between the grana
  4. 5. 4. Stroma 6. thylakoid membrane 7. grana 8. thylakoid
  5. 6. Pigments- light absorbing colored molecules that are found in the thylakoid membrane. Major light-absorbing pigments in plants are chlorophylls like chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Carotenoids is an accessory pigments that allows plants to trap additional light energy.
  6. 7. Accessory Pigments There are 2 types of carotenoids 1. Carotenes- orange pigments 2.Xanthophylls- yellow pigments -Trap energy from colors of light that chlorophyll does NOT absorb well -Give cells the colors red, orange, & yellow that you see in fall leaves when chlorophyll degrades
  7. 8. Phase One: Light reaction overview -Light-dependent reactions -Light energy is converted to chemical energy -Split water molecules, provide hydrogen and an energy source for the Calvin Cycle -O 2 from H 2 O is given off
  8. 9. Phase One: Light Reactions 1 st step – absorption of light by chloroplasts (located in the cells of leaves)
  9. 10. 2 nd step in Phase 1- Electron Transport Chain - When electrons absorb enough energy, they leave the chlorophyll molecule and are passed along a series of molecules in the thylakoid , releasing energy as they go (ATP and NADPH) - This series of molecules is known as the electron transport chain - As the electrons pass down the chain the extra energy they received from light is stored in the bonds of ATP
  10. 12. Phase Two: Calvin cycle overview -Light –independent reaction -Forms simple sugars using carbon from CO 2 and H 2 to form H 2 O -Takes place in the stroma -Forms carbohydrates (glucose)
  11. 13. The Calvin Cycle -A plant produces ATP and NADPH + H + Carbon fixation - an enzyme adds the carbon atom of CO 2 to a 5-carbon molecule -It takes CO 2 from the air and converts it to a form that is usable by living things -CO 2 combines with H 2 to form simple sugars that are used to make other carbohydrates and complex sugars, starch, and cellulose
  12. 14. Calvin Cycle (Cont.) -ATP and H 2 from the light reactions are needed for the Calvin Cycle -a plant produces carbohydrates (sugar, starch, cellulose)
  13. 15. CO 2 enters leaves and stems of green plants through pores called stomata
  14. 16. Chemosynthesis <ul><li>a process in which an autotroph obtains energy from inorganic compounds instead of from sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>examples: methane producing-bacteria which are poisoned by O 2 </li></ul>
  15. 17. Stage Starting Materials Ending Materials Light Reactions CO 2 H 2 O Light energy H 2 O 2 ATP Calvin Cycle (Light-Independent Reactions) H 2 ATP CO 2 carbohydrate O 2
  16. 20. Factors That Can Affect Photosynthesis <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A shortage of water can slow or stop photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The enzymes for photosynthesis only work between 0 ̊C and 35 ̊C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Light Intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The stronger the light shining on the plant, the faster photosynthesis occurs. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. C 4 Plants occurs in plants like corn & sugarcane helps plants maintain photosynthesis while minimizing water loss fix carbon dioxide into 4-carbon compounds instead of 3-carbon compounds during Calvin cycle Keep stomata closed during hot days
  18. 22. CAM Plants occurs in water-conserving plants living in deserts, salt marshes, etc. where water is limited examples: cacti, orchids, pineapple allows carbon dioxide to enter only at night, when the atmosphere is cooler and more humid
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×