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Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
Chapter 8 1
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Chapter 8 1

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 8 – Cellular Energy pp. 218-221
  • 2.
    • Thermodynamics-study of the flow and transformation of energy.
    • 1 st Law of Thermodynamics – energy can NOT be created or destroyed…it’s just converted from one form to another.
    • 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics – energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy.
    • “ lost” energy is converted to thermal (heat) energy
  • 3.
    • Entropy – Measure of unusable energy in a system
    • Example: Food chains The usable energy available to the next trophic level decreases
  • 4. Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
    • All organisms need energy to live
    • Nearly all energy for life comes from the sun
    • Autotrophs – make own food
    • Heterotrophs – cannot make own food (must ingest)
  • 5. Metabolism
    • Metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next reaction
    • There are 2 types of metabolic pathways
    • -Anabolic
    • -Catabolic
  • 6. Two Types of Metabolic Pathways
    • Catabolic – release energy by breaking down larger molecules into smaller molecules
    • Anabolic – use energy released by catabolic to build larger molecules from smaller molecules
  • 7. Anabolic pathway example - Photosythesis
    • Photosythesis – light energy from sun converted to chemical energy for use by cell
    • light
    • 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2
  • 8. Catabolic pathway example- Cellular Respiration
    • Cellular Respiration – organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 --> 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + ATP
  • 9. Which one is the anabolic pathway/ catabolic pathway? Photosynthesis (Autotrophs) Cellular Respiration (Heterotrophs)
  • 10. ATP: Adenosine triphosphate
    • Provides chemical energy
    • Most abundant energy-carrier molecule
    • Made up of an adenine base, ribose sugar, 3 phosphate groups
  • 11. Function of ATP
    • ATP releases energy when the bond between the 2 nd and 3 rd phosphate groups is broken.
    • This forms ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a free phosphate group

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