Chapter 8 – Cellular Energy pp. 218-221
<ul><li>Thermodynamics-study of the flow and transformation of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st  Law of Thermodynamics – ene...
<ul><li>Entropy – Measure of unusable energy in a system </li></ul><ul><li>Example:  Food chains  The usable energy availa...
Autotrophs & Heterotrophs <ul><li>All organisms need energy to live </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all energy for life comes fro...
Metabolism <ul><li>Metabolic pathway  is a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is the substr...
Two Types of Metabolic Pathways   <ul><li>Catabolic  – release energy by breaking down larger molecules into smaller molec...
Anabolic pathway example - Photosythesis <ul><li>Photosythesis – light energy from sun converted to chemical energy for us...
Catabolic pathway example-  Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Cellular Respiration – organic molecules are broken down to relea...
Which one is the anabolic pathway/  catabolic pathway? Photosynthesis (Autotrophs) Cellular Respiration (Heterotrophs)
ATP: Adenosine triphosphate <ul><li>Provides chemical energy </li></ul><ul><li>Most abundant energy-carrier molecule </li>...
Function of ATP <ul><li>ATP releases energy when the bond between the 2 nd  and 3 rd  phosphate groups is broken. </li></u...
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Chapter 8 1

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Chapter 8 1

  1. 1. Chapter 8 – Cellular Energy pp. 218-221
  2. 2. <ul><li>Thermodynamics-study of the flow and transformation of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Law of Thermodynamics – energy can NOT be created or destroyed…it’s just converted from one form to another. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Law of Thermodynamics – energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy. </li></ul><ul><li>“ lost” energy is converted to thermal (heat) energy </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Entropy – Measure of unusable energy in a system </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Food chains The usable energy available to the next trophic level decreases </li></ul>
  4. 4. Autotrophs & Heterotrophs <ul><li>All organisms need energy to live </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all energy for life comes from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs – make own food </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs – cannot make own food (must ingest) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Metabolism <ul><li>Metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next reaction </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 types of metabolic pathways </li></ul><ul><li>-Anabolic </li></ul><ul><li>-Catabolic </li></ul>
  6. 6. Two Types of Metabolic Pathways <ul><li>Catabolic – release energy by breaking down larger molecules into smaller molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic – use energy released by catabolic to build larger molecules from smaller molecules </li></ul>
  7. 7. Anabolic pathway example - Photosythesis <ul><li>Photosythesis – light energy from sun converted to chemical energy for use by cell </li></ul><ul><li> light </li></ul><ul><li>6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Catabolic pathway example- Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Cellular Respiration – organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 --> 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + ATP </li></ul>
  9. 9. Which one is the anabolic pathway/ catabolic pathway? Photosynthesis (Autotrophs) Cellular Respiration (Heterotrophs)
  10. 10. ATP: Adenosine triphosphate <ul><li>Provides chemical energy </li></ul><ul><li>Most abundant energy-carrier molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of an adenine base, ribose sugar, 3 phosphate groups </li></ul>
  11. 11. Function of ATP <ul><li>ATP releases energy when the bond between the 2 nd and 3 rd phosphate groups is broken. </li></ul><ul><li>This forms ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a free phosphate group </li></ul>
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