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Chapter 6 1

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Transcript of "Chapter 6 1"

1. 1. Atoms, Elements and Compounds
2. 2. Atom- building blocks of matter Inside the atom is the nucleus. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons while surrounding the nucleus are the electrons .
3. 3. Electron -> (e - ) ← Electron (e - ) ← Protons & ← Neutrons (p + ) & (n 0 )
4. 4. <ul><li>Protons has a positive charge. (p+) </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons has no charge. </li></ul><ul><li>(n 0 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons has a negative charge. (e-) </li></ul>
5. 5. <ul><li>Since there are protons and neutrons in the atom, the net charge of the nucleus is positive . </li></ul><ul><li>The nucleus contains most of the mass of the atom. </li></ul>
6. 6. All matter is made up of atoms. Elements - when all the atoms in the matter are the same. There are 118 elements. Ex: Carbon and Oxygen
7. 7. <ul><li>Isotopes- nucleus with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. This is due to radioactivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Carbon Carbon-14 </li></ul><ul><li>6 protons 6 protons </li></ul><ul><li>6 neutrons 8 neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Not an isotope Isotope </li></ul>
8. 8. Compounds <ul><li>Compounds - matter that is made up of 2 or more combined elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds look different than the elements that make them up. </li></ul>
9. 9. Compound Ex: <ul><li>Ex: H & O = H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>C & O = CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>C,H & O = C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul>
10. 10. <ul><li>2 Types of Chemical Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ionic </li></ul><ul><li>2. Covalent </li></ul>
11. 11. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Ionic Bonds- the force of attraction between the opposite charges of ions. </li></ul><ul><li>The giving and taking of electrons (+ with -) </li></ul><ul><li>Ions - Atoms that have a charge </li></ul>
12. 12. <ul><li>Ex: Magnesium Oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Mg +2 O -2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mg O = Mg O </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Magnesium Chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Mg +2 Cl -1 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mg Cl = Cl Mg Cl </li></ul>. . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . Ionic Bond . . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .
13. 13. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Covalent Bond- The attraction that forms between atoms when they share electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>The sharing of electrons (+ with + or - with -) </li></ul><ul><li>Molecule - neutral particle formed from covalent bond </li></ul>
14. 14. <ul><li>Ex: Diatomic Chlorine (Cl 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cl -1 Cl -1 </li></ul><ul><li>Cl Cl = Cl Cl </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Diatomic Hydrogen (H 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>H +1 H +1 </li></ul><ul><li>H H = H H </li></ul>.. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . . . . Covalent Bond
15. 15. Van der Waals Forces- attractive forces between the positive and negative regions pull on a molecule and hold them together. Ex: Water The areas of slight positive and negative charge around the water molecules are attracted to the opposite charge of other nearby water molecules. These forces hold water molecules together.
16. 16. http://www.johnkyrk.com/H2O.html
17. 17. atom nucleus proton neutron electron element isotope compound covalent bond molecule ion ionic bond van der Waals force Vocabulary – Section 1 http://science.widener.edu/~svanbram/ptable_6.pdf
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