Chapter 12.4 gene regulation & mutation

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Chapter 12.4 gene regulation & mutation

  1. 1. 12.4 Gene Regulation & Mutation- Pgs.342-349
  2. 2. <ul><li>Gene Regulation- ability of an organism to control which genes are transcribed in response to the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes use operons. </li></ul><ul><li>Operons- section of DNA that contains genes for the proteins needed for a specific pathway. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: trp operon- tryptophan </li></ul><ul><li> lac operon- lactose </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Gene Regulation is crucial during development of Eukaryotes. Homeobox (Hox) genes determines the body plan of an organism. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Mutation- mistake or change in the DNA sequence (gene) </li></ul><ul><li>It causes a change in the protein it codes for </li></ul><ul><li>See table 12.3, p. 346 for a complete list. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gene Mutations <ul><li>Point mutations – mistake with 1 nucleotide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitution of the wrong nucleotide in place of correct one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frameshift mutations – occur when a nucleotide is either inserted or deleted , altering the codon sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More severe than point mutations because it affects all of the amino acids in the protein </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Causes of Mutations <ul><li>Mutagen – any agent that causes a change in DNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA polymerase sometimes adds wrong nucleotides (only 1/100,000) and goes unfixed in 1/1 billion </li></ul>
  7. 9. Environmental Factors <ul><li>x-rays </li></ul><ul><li>ultraviolet light </li></ul><ul><li>radioactive substances </li></ul><ul><li>certain chemicals (asbestos, formaldehyde, benzene) </li></ul><ul><li>high temperatures </li></ul>
  8. 10. Mutations in sex cells <ul><li>Passed on to offspring & will be present in every cell of the offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Could result in a new trait or in a protein that does not function properly </li></ul>
  9. 11. Mutations in body cells <ul><li>Impairs the function of that cell </li></ul><ul><li>As that cell divides, the mutation will be passed on to the new cells </li></ul><ul><li>If it affects the genes that control division, cells can multiply rapidly-resulting in cancer </li></ul>
  10. 13. QUIZ <ul><li>Identify the following processes as transcription, replication, translation, or mutation. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Name the process below. mutation
  12. 15. Name the process below. DNA replication
  13. 16. Name the process below. Transcription
  14. 17. Name the process below. Translation

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