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Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
Chapter 12.3  dna,rna and protein
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Chapter 12.3 dna,rna and protein

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  • 1. 12.3 DNA, RNA, & Protein
  • 2.
    • Chain of events:
    • DNA -> RNA-> Synthesis of Protein
    • Occurs in ALL living things – from bacteria to humans
  • 3. RNA – Ribonucleic Acid
    • Single stranded helix
    • Contains ribose sugar (not deoxyribose)
    • Uracil replaces thymine
    • 3 types of RNA
    • 1. mRNA (messenger RNA)
    • 2. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
    • 3. tRNA (transfer RNA)
  • 4. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • Carries genetic information from DNA
    • Travel from nucleus to the ribosome
    • Direct protein synthesis
    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    • Helps join the mRNA codons to the tRNA anticodons in the ribosome s. It produce enzymes needed to bond amino acids together during protein synthesis
    • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • Transport amino acids to the ribosome
  • 5.
    • Transcription- The process of transferring genetic information from DNA to RNA
    • forms one single-stranded RNA molecule
  • 6. Steps of Transcription
    • Step 1: DNA molecule unzips. RNA polymerase binds where mRNA will be synthesized.
    • Step 2: Free RNA nucleotides attach to DNA nucleotides by base pairing
    • Step 3: mRNA strand breaks from DNA
    • Step 4: mRNA leaves nucleus and goes to cytoplasm to the ribosomes
  • 7. Transcription Clip
  • 8.
    • Codon- 3 base code in DNA or mRNA. Each base of a codon in DNA is transcribed in to the mRNA code.
  • 9.
    • The order of nitrogen bases in mRNA will determine the type and order of amino acids in a protein
    • The code is universal - the codons represent the same amino acids in all organisms
    • Three nucleotides code for one amino acid
    • Example – UUU codes for phenylalanine
  • 10. Codons
    • 64 possible codons
    • 20 different amino acids
  • 11. Codons
    • Start Codon
    • AUG
    • Stop Codons
    • UGA
    • UAA
    • UAG
  • 12.
    • Translation- the process of converting the information in mRNA into amino
    • acid chains (proteins)
    • It occurs at the ribosome in the cytoplasm
    • tRNA - brings amino acids to the ribosomes
    • Each mRNA codon joins to the correct tRNA anticodon (complement to the mRNA codon)
    • the end result of translation is the formation of an amino acid chain (protein)
  • 13.  
  • 14. Steps of Translation
    • Step 1: tRNA picks up amino acids in cytoplasm and takes to mRNA attached to the ribosome
    • Step 2: The anticodon on the tRNA connects to the complementary codon on the mRNA strand
    • Step 3: The amino acids attach to one another by peptide bonds forming long chains
    • Step 4: When stop codon is reached, translation ends and amino acid strand released
  • 15. Nitrogen Base Sequence
  • 16.  
  • 17. Quick Molecular Genetic Terminology
    • Replication = DNA  DNA
    • Transcription = DNA  RNA
    • Translation = RNA  Amino Acids
    • Polypeptide = Chain of amino acids
    • Adenine, cytosine, & guanine = DNA & RNA
    • Thymine = DNA Only
    • Uracil = RNA Only
  • 18. Transcription/Translation Clip

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