1 structure of the atom

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1 structure of the atom

  1. 1. Structure of the Atom
  2. 2. <ul><li>Chemical symbol- an abbreviated way to write the name of an element. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: C= Carbon O= Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>H= Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>N= Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Al= Aluminum Au= Gold </li></ul><ul><li>Pg. 556-557(Periodic Table) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Inside the Atom <ul><li>Inside the atom is the nucleus. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons while surrounding the nucleus are the electrons . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Electron -> (e - ) ← Electron (e - ) ← Protons & ← Neutrons (p + ) & (n 0 )
  5. 5. <ul><li>Protons has a positive charge. (p+) </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons has no charge. </li></ul><ul><li>(n 0 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons has a negative charge. (e-) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Since there are protons and neutrons in the atom, the net charge of the nucleus is positive . </li></ul><ul><li>The nucleus contains most of the mass of the atom. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The overall charge of the atom is neutral (no charge). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Atomic Number <ul><li>Atomic number- the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of protons equals the number of electrons . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Atomic Number, # of p + and e - <ul><li>Atomic# p + e - </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen= </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen= </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon= </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum= </li></ul><ul><li>Gold= </li></ul>
  10. 10. Atomic Number, # of p + and e - <ul><li>Atomic# p + e - </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen= 8 8 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen= 1 1 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon= 6 6 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum= 13 13 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Gold= 79 79 79 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Atomic Mass <ul><li>Atomic Mass- The number of protons and neutrons . </li></ul><ul><li>Round atomic mass to nearest whole number. </li></ul><ul><li>To calculate the number of neutrons, subtract the atomic number from atomic mass. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Calculate the number of neutrons <ul><li> Oxygen Carbon Boron </li></ul><ul><li>p + &n o 16 12 11 </li></ul><ul><li>p + -8 -6 -5 </li></ul><ul><li>n o 8 6 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass=(# of p + &n o ) </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic number= (# of p + ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Electron Cloud- a region where the electrons move around. It surrounds the nucleus of the atom. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Electrons close to the nucleus have low energy while electrons farther away have more energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are placed into energy levels. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Energy Levels <ul><li>Energy Level Max # of e - </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 8 </li></ul><ul><li>3 8 </li></ul><ul><li>4 18 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nucleus p + & n o e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e-e- e- e- e-e- e-e- ← 3 rd = 8 e- ← 2 nd = 8 e- ← 1 st = 2 e-

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