1 structure of the atom

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  • 1. Structure of the Atom
  • 2.
    • Chemical symbol- an abbreviated way to write the name of an element.
    • Ex: C= Carbon O= Oxygen
    • H= Hydrogen
    • N= Nitrogen
    • Al= Aluminum Au= Gold
    • Pg. 556-557(Periodic Table)
  • 3. Inside the Atom
    • Inside the atom is the nucleus. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons while surrounding the nucleus are the electrons .
  • 4. Electron -> (e - ) ← Electron (e - ) ← Protons & ← Neutrons (p + ) & (n 0 )
  • 5.
    • Protons has a positive charge. (p+)
    • Neutrons has no charge.
    • (n 0 )
    • Electrons has a negative charge. (e-)
  • 6.
    • Since there are protons and neutrons in the atom, the net charge of the nucleus is positive .
    • The nucleus contains most of the mass of the atom.
  • 7.
    • The overall charge of the atom is neutral (no charge).
  • 8. Atomic Number
    • Atomic number- the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
    • The number of protons equals the number of electrons .
  • 9. Atomic Number, # of p + and e -
    • Atomic# p + e -
    • Oxygen=
    • Hydrogen=
    • Carbon=
    • Aluminum=
    • Gold=
  • 10. Atomic Number, # of p + and e -
    • Atomic# p + e -
    • Oxygen= 8 8 8
    • Hydrogen= 1 1 1
    • Carbon= 6 6 6
    • Aluminum= 13 13 13
    • Gold= 79 79 79
  • 11. Atomic Mass
    • Atomic Mass- The number of protons and neutrons .
    • Round atomic mass to nearest whole number.
    • To calculate the number of neutrons, subtract the atomic number from atomic mass.
  • 12. Calculate the number of neutrons
    • Oxygen Carbon Boron
    • p + &n o 16 12 11
    • p + -8 -6 -5
    • n o 8 6 6
    • Atomic mass=(# of p + &n o )
    • Atomic number= (# of p + )
  • 13.
    • Electron Cloud- a region where the electrons move around. It surrounds the nucleus of the atom.
  • 14.
    • Electrons close to the nucleus have low energy while electrons farther away have more energy.
    • Electrons are placed into energy levels.
  • 15. Energy Levels
    • Energy Level Max # of e -
    • 1 2
    • 2 8
    • 3 8
    • 4 18
  • 16. Nucleus p + & n o e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e-e- e- e- e-e- e-e- ← 3 rd = 8 e- ← 2 nd = 8 e- ← 1 st = 2 e-