Students are often informally assessed on their reading and writing development. The informal assessments allow for the teacher to quickly decide which students need remediation, more practice or enrichment with specific skills and strategies. Teachers may informally assess their students by simply listening in as the students are talking with their peers. High level questioning should be used to guide student conversations. Teachers may informally assess the students reading and writing development by utilizing journals. The journals allow a quick peek into the students’ heads and show the students’ strengths and weaknesses. Formal assessment are also used within the classroom. Many of the formal assessments are mandated by the school district or state. The formal assessments are used to guide my instruction. Students will earn their grades by earning points. Many of the scores will come from rubrics. Rubrics are sent home on a biweekly basis so you know how your child is doing in the classroom. Students will be evaluated on the quality and quality of reading journals, reading logs, written responses, active participation during discussions, published pieces of writing, comprehension tests, and quantity of writing produced during Writer’s Workshop.
Assessment fidelity to make sure all teachers score students the same (i.e. DRA, etc.)Program should be consistent throughout the building. It should not change from classroom to classroom. Key components and elements of instruction need to be identified at each grade level.
Started with language because whole district was trained in Academic Vocabulary last year.
March 4, 2014
Assistant Director ELA
St. Clair County RESA
How to do a
The number of adults that are classified as functionally
illiterate increases by about 2.25 million each year.
One child in four grows up not knowing how to read.
44 million adults in the U.S. can't read well enough to read a
simple story to a child.
21 million Americans can't read at all, 45 million are
marginally illiterate, and one-fifth of high school graduates
can't read their diplomas.
43 % of those
whose literacy skills
are lowest live in
70% of America's
prison inmates are
illiterate and 85%
of all juvenile
proficiently by the
end of the 4th
grade will end up
in jail or on
90% of welfare
recipients are high
When the State of
how many prison
beds it will need, it
factors in the
number of kids
who read well in
16 to 19 year old
girls at the poverty
level and below,
with below average
skills, are 6 times
more likely to have
children than their
Research has suggested that addressing students’
individual needs is an important aspect of
effective reading instruction (Fielding & Pearson,
1994). Although this may challenge teachers’
traditional notions of reading instruction, forcing
them to work in guided reading groups and
individually with readers, the research is
overwhelmingly in favor of individualizing
instruction to meet the needs of all learners
Teachers need to put aside instructional practices
that have been shown to be ineffective.
(“Implementing a Workshop Approach to Reading”
Dr. Frank Seraini, 2005)
Learning in general is indeed an intentional act. Students
make the conscience decision to learn or not to learn
immediately upon entrance into the classroom each day.
The teachers and learning environments which the
student encounters certainly influence his decision to
Implementing Reading and Writing Workshop into
elementary, middle, and secondary classrooms leads to
increased levels of motivation in readers and writers.
Research has found that high levels of motivation and
engagement in elementary classrooms leads to high
levels of achievement (Pressley, M., Allington, R.L.,
Wharton-McDonald, R., Black, C.C., & Morrow, L.M.,
In workshop approaches, the teacher is seen as a decision maker,
conducting lessons and creating learning experiences based on the
needs of the readers in their class.
Instructional decisions are made by teachers to address the needs of
the students in their classrooms. In the hands of a quality teacher,
basals and instructional materials become resources to use, rather
than a series of lessons to be read aloud.
One of the most important things we can do as educators is to
provide students with ample time for reading and writing.
Professor Pearson finds that in many classrooms,
students spend little time actually reading texts.
Much of their instructional time is spent on
workbook-type assignments. The skill/time ratio
is typically the highest for children of the lowest
reading ability (Allington, 1983). Furthermore,
the research indicates that teachers are spending
inadequate amounts of time on direct
comprehension instruction. A study completed
(Durkin) concluded that teachers used either
workbooks or textbook questions to determine a
student's understanding of content, but rarely
taught students "how to comprehend."
Both NRP and Duke and Pearson (2002) agree
that explicit teaching, including an explanation
of what and how the strategy should be used,
teacher modeling and thinking aloud about the
strategy, guided practice with the strategy and
support for students applying the strategy
independently are the steps needed to
effectively teach any comprehension strategy.
Comprehension is what it’s all about!
Reading comprehension – and how to teach it –
is probably the area of literacy about which we
have the most knowledge and the most
It is also probably the area that gets the least
attention in the classroom.
teachers are the only
element of an effective
Allington & Cunningham, 1997
Join room 980994
Discuss: When you are observing
reading in K-2 classrooms, what do
you consistently see?
Discuss: When you are observing
reading in 3-5 classrooms, what do
you consistently see?
Record: Differences in K-2 and 35 reading instruction.
Traditional Reading Groups
◦ Groups remain stable in composition.
◦ Students progress through a specific
sequence of stories and skills.
◦ Introductions focus on new vocabulary.
◦ Skills practice follows reading.
◦ Focus is on the lesson, not the student.
◦ Teacher follows prepared "script" from the
◦ Questions are generally limited to factual
◦ Teacher is interpreter and checker of
◦ Students take turn reading orally.
◦ Focus is on decoding words.
◦ Students respond to story in workbooks or
on prepared worksheets.
◦ Readers are dependent on teacher direction
◦ Students are tested on skills and literal
recall at the end of each story/unit.
Guided Reading Groups
◦ Groups are dynamic, flexible, and change
on a regular basis.
◦ Stories are chosen at appropriate level for
each group; there is no prescribed
◦ Introductions focus on meaning with some
attention to new and interesting vocabulary.
◦ Skills practice is embedded in shared
◦ Focus is on the student, not the lesson.
◦ Teacher and students actively interact with
◦ Questions develop higher order thinking
skills and strategic reading. Teacher and
students interact with text to construct
◦ Students read entire text silently or with a
◦ Focus is on understanding meaning.
◦ Students respond to story through personal
and authentic activities. Students read
independently and confidently.
◦ Assessment is ongoing and embedded in
Round 1: Discuss what you currently see in
classrooms during reading instruction.
Round 2: Discuss what you would like to see
in classrooms during reading instruction.
Round 3: How will you implement this
Such instruction involves four phases:
teacher modeling and explanation
guided practice during which teachers "guide"
students to assume greater responsibility for task
independent practice accompanied by
application of the strategies in real reading
Dr. Pearson emphasizes that comprehension instruction
must be embedded in texts rather than taught in isolation
through workbook pages.
After reading through the Teacher SelfReflection, think of the teachers in your
◦ Where will you find most teachers?
◦ Where will you start to support your teachers to
achieve Reading Workshop with fidelity?
◦ Where will you focus your resources?
◦ What do you need to help support your teachers in
Turn and Talk
Notes From Small Group
On Demand Writing
Students who do not meet benchmark should
be receiving intervention. These services
should not receive
(90 minute block).
Yearly, time should
be spent supporting
teachers to achieve:
Birth to grade 1
Phonological Awareness –
gains control of oral
language; relies heavily on
pictures in text; pretends to
read; recognizes rhyme
Beginning grade 1
Phonics – grows aware of
focuses on printed symbols;
Grade 1 to Grade 3
Develops fluency in reading;
recognizes patterns in
words; checks for meaning;
Grade 4 to 8
Learning the New
Uses reading as a tool for
learning; applies reading
Analyzes what is read;
reacts critically to texts;
deals with layers of facts
Develops a well-rounded
view of the world through
instruction of skills and
Small Groups (4560 minutes):
time to share and
talk about reading
When Using Guided Reading
Students have a
high accuracy rate
in reading when the
text is chosen for
provided with the
The focus of reading
shifts to meaning
Students have the
opportunity to apply
strategies with the
guidance and support of
their teacher and observe
proper reading strategies,
as modeled by their
teacher and peers.
96%- 100% Accuracy
Students can read with
teacher support and
< 90% Accuracy
If Harcourt is the
Works best for onlevel students
Look at needs of
readers need more
All readers need
Cover the same
skills covered with
the leveled readers
criteria for a good
1. Must involve
2. Majority of my
must be able to
3. Students must
need work on
How big can the
readers/belowlevel groups (3-4)
Advanced/abovelevel groups (7-8)
How often do we
Who meets with
meets with EVERY
Proficient/onlevel groups (4
(every other day)
What can the
be doing now?
Work with groups
students as they
as they work
-Selects appropriate text.
-Prepares an introduction to
-Previews some challenging
word patterns, vocabulary,
and concepts that are
present in the story.
- “Listens in” to what
students are reading.
- Facilitates a discussion
on the book.
-Interacts with individual
students to address specific
response to what they
-Observes student strategy
use and takes anecdotal
-Focuses on a particular skill
and their success using a
extension activities to
improve fluency, decoding,
-Returns to the text to
point out one or two
teaching points that
reflect the main purpose
of the lesson.
-Points out strategies
used by students during
See Essential Elements of Guided Reading Handout
Share response from previous day
Set purpose for reading
Preview/ Review Vocabulary
Reread previous guided reading book (k-2)
Build sentences from a previous guided reading
◦ KWL Chart , Thinking Map etc. to activate
Focus on Comprehension
◦ Students read text
The comprehension strategy used
during guided reading should
have been taught to students,
whole group; during guided
reading students are able to
practice the strategy with teacher
support and in instructional level
The primary purpose of reading
is to obtain meaning from text.
Even at the K-2 level students
need to be reading to make
meaning from text.
NOT ROUND ROBIN!
Redo the ending of the story
Act out the story
Rebuilding/rereading sentences from text
Draw or write a response to the story
Conversation about the
texts students read
mimic the conversations
real readers in the real
world have about real
books they really want to
Model types of
connections readers make
(T-S, T-T, T-W).
Conduct discussions with
readers as conversations –
Arrange for students to
have literate conversations
in small groups.
At your table, take turns
sharing examples of
meaningful activities for
students to do. Be sure to
explain how you know it’s a
Each time you share, place
your chip in the center.
Take notes of meaningful
activities you would like to
see when you observe
Everyone must share before
you share again.
o7lvg (8 min. 3 grade lesson)
Book: The Hungry Giant
Comprehension Strategy : Making predictions
Essential Question: How do I make predictions as I read?
Before: Create a prediction chart. Have students look at the cover of the book
and make predictions for the story.
1. Introduce vocabulary words: bommy-knocker and roared.
2. Choral read with students
1. On page 13 stop and have students revisit their predictions. Check to see if
they still think their predictions will be true.
3. Partner read with students
4. Independent read
After: Revisit the prediction chart and have students compare the story ending to
At your tables
identify if this was a
good or bad lesson.
Work together to
identify the good and
bad components of
At your table, revisit what components you
would like to see in every reading lesson.
Develop a list of necessary components.
Develop a list of things you do not want to
Develop a plan to implement necessary
components into every classroom lesson.
(3 day PD)
◦ Day 1 – introduce
◦ Day 2 – model lesson
◦ Day 3 - classroom walkthrough and support
This year – academic vocabulary
Next year – see suggested PD plan