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Networking Concepts Lesson 11 - Enterprise & Distributed Networks - Eric Vanderburg

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Networking Concepts Lesson 11 - Enterprise & Distributed Networks - Eric Vanderburg

Networking Concepts Lesson 11 - Enterprise & Distributed Networks - Eric Vanderburg

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  • 1. Chapter 11 Enterprise & Distributed Networks Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 2. Expanding Networks  Modem (Modulator/Demodulator)  RJ11 phone port  External modems use RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) serial port  Hayes-compatible – works with software designed for the original Hayes modems in the early 80’s Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 3. Modems Baud – number of sound wave oscillations per second – old modems transferred 1 bit/baud  ITU (International Telecommunications Union) – created the V-series standards  • • • • • V.22bis* – 2400baud, 2.4kbps V.32 – 2400baud, 9.6kbps V.32bis – 2400baud, 13.4kbps V.32ter – 2400baud, 19.2kbps V.FC (Fast Class) – 9600baud, 28.8kbps • • • • • V.34 – 9600baud, 28.8kbps V.34bis – 9600baud, 33.6kbps V.42bis – uses compression & error correction, 28.8kbps V.90 – 56k d/l, 22.6k u/l V.92 – modem on hold, 56k Networking respectively *Bis & ter mean 2nd & 3rd revisionsConcepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 4. Modems Asynchronous – start and stop bits are placed before and after each byte (8 bits + parity bit). More check data and more overhead.  PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) – digitizing an analog signal on a modem    33.6 Kbps from modem to ISP 56 Kbps from ISP to modem MNP Class 5 compression  Synchronous – devices agree on a timing scheme utilizing sync bits and transfer blocks of data (frames) accordingly. Less overhead, leased line use. Also provide error checking.      SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) Bisync (Binary Synchronous) Transfer rates depend on    Line conditions V standard FCC regulations (max is 54kbps) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 5. Digital Modems  ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)      Cable   NT (Network Termination) TA (Terminal Adapter) BRI (Basic Rate Interface) – 2 B channels (64k) & 1 D channel (16k), $50-$70 PRI (Primary Rate Interface) – 23 B channels, 1 D channel (H10=1472 kb/s *see ch.7), $300-$1500 DOCSIS encrypts each connection to increase security. DSL    Distance limitation between user and CO (17,500-23,000ft) ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) - 8 Mbps d/l, 1 Mbps u/l SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line) - equal d/l and u/l speeds Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 6. Carriers  Throughput – how much data can be sent over the line per second  Distance  Cost Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 7. RRAS  RRAS Authentication  Wizard Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 8. RRAS & terms  RRAS     DUN (Dial-up Networking) SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)    Layer 1 Works with TCP/IP only CSLIP (Compressed Serial Line Internet Protocol)   Max concurrent clients: 256 Called RAS (Remote Access Service) in NT Same as SLIP but can compress data to increase speed PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)     Layers 1 & 2 Works with IP, IPX, & NetBEUI Can compress & check for errors Supports DHCP Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 9. Other Vendors  Novell NetWare provides VPN server connections     Able to form VPN WAN by connecting corporate LANs over VPN connections through the Internet Mac OS version 9 and above support VPN client connections to Windows servers using PPTP or IPSec Mac OS X Server provides a VPN server service that permits Mac OS, Windows, and Linux/Unix clients to connect to the corporate LAN Linux versions using L2TP may not be compatible with Windows VPN solutions Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 10. VPN  Linux supports VPN client and server applications  Not compatible with Windows L2TP  More difficult to use; may require a patch to the kernel  VPNs are Less expensive than a modem pool. Internet connection replaces direct modem connection Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 11. VLAN  Implemented on switches  Requires a router also  Divides ports into logical sections  Usually separated by subnet Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 12. Routing  Static routing – each path must be manually entered – same path is used each time  Dynamic routing – router determines the best route based on available info Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 13. Brouters  Routes packets that use routable protocols  Forwards packets that are not routable  Useful in hybrid network with mixture of routable and nonroutable protocols  May be identified as router with bridging capabilities Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  • 14. Gateway  Operates at layer 7  Translates between most dissimilar networks  GSNW… Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005