Networking Concepts Lesson 07 - Architectures - Eric Vanderburg

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Networking Concepts Lesson 07 - Architectures - Eric Vanderburg

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Networking Concepts Lesson 07 - Architectures - Eric Vanderburg

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Network Architectures Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  2. 2. Network Architectures  The overall structure, topology, physical media, and channel access method. Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  3. 3. Ethernet  Easy to install  Works with many protocols  Uses a hardware address Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  4. 4. 10Mbps Standards  10base5  10base2  10baseT  UTP or STP  5-4-3 rule – 5 segments, 4 repeaters, 3 segments with nodes  100m  1024 nodes, 1024 segments  10baseF Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  5. 5. 10baseF  10baseFL – fiber to desktop  10baseFP – connecting passive hubs, 500m  10baseFB – fiber backbone  1024 nodes, 1024 segments Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  6. 6. 100baseT  100baseT4 – 4pair Cat3  100baseTX – 2 pair Cat5  100baseFX – 2 strand fiber  Hub Types  Class I – 1 hub between devices  Class 2 – 2 hubs between devices  Switches are immune Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  7. 7. Gigabit Ethernet  802.3z  1000baseLX – long wavelength (12701355nm), multimode fiber  1000baseLH – long haul, 10,000m, single-mode  1000baseZX – 100,000m, single-mode  1000baseSX – short wavelength (770860nm), multimode Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  8. 8. Gigabit Ethernet  1000baseCX – twin copper cables, short range 25m, for connecting equipment  1000baseT  802.3ab  Full duplex all wires Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  9. 9. 10 Gigabit Ethernet    802.3ae All fiber LAN versions    MAN versions   10GbaseSR – 26-82m, multimode, high speed server, switches, & SANs 10GbaseLR, 10km, single mode, campus backbone 10GbaseER – 40km, single-mode WAN versions    10GbaseSW – 300m, multimode 10GbaseLW – 10km, single mode 10GbaseEW – 40km, single mode Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  10. 10. Ethernet Frame Types  Must use same frame type to communicate  802.3 – Netware 2x, 3x  802.2 - IEEE 802.3  Ethernet SNAP (SubNetwork Access Protocol) – AppleTalk, protocol type field  Ethernet II – TCP/IP, has protocol type field in the preamble, can be up to 1518 bytes long Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  11. 11. Max Segments  Switches reduce the collision domain  Routers reduce the broadcast domain  Add switches or routers to the network Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  12. 12. Wireless  Hidden node problem – all can hear AP but not each other  Demand priority used to correct  RTS (Ready to Send)  CTS (Clear to Send) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  13. 13. Token Ring  NAUN (Nearest Active Upstream Neighbor)  NADN (Nearest Active Downstream Neighbor)  Beaconing – find error in ring, beacon sent every 7 seconds  MAU (Multistation Access Unit) / SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit)  Has 10 or 16 ports, 2 ports used for RI (Ring In) & RO (Ring Out) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  14. 14. Token Ring Frame Types  802.5 frame type (the native format for Token Ring networks), up to 18,000 bytes long  Token Ring SNAP - 802.5 frame type with SNAP header (can be used with TokenTalk) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  15. 15. AppleTalk  AppleTalk Phase 1 – 32 nodes/network, 254 max  AppleTalk Phase 2  EtherTalk (1024)  TokenTalk  LocalTalk – bus network Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  16. 16. FDDI          Redundancy Uses Fiber 500 nodes 100m Primary and secondary ring Multiple frames Concentrator – hub for FDDI DAS (Dual Attachment Station) – connected to primary and secondary rings SAS (Single Attachment Station)  Used when connected to DAS concentrator Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  17. 17. Broadband  Cable DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification)  Longer range  Faster speed   DSL  More secure  ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) 2 B (bearer) channels, 56kbps  1 D (data) channel 16 kbps  Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  18. 18. ISDN H channels provide a way to aggregate B channels.  H0=384 kb/s (6 B channels)  H10=1472 kb/s (23 B channels)  H11=1536 kb/s (24 B channels)  H12=1920 kb/s (30 B channels) International (E1) only Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  19. 19. DSL Types Type Description Data Rate Distance Limit Application IDSL ISDN Digital Subscriber Line 128 Kbps 18,000 feet on 24 gauge Similar to the ISDN BRI service but data only (no voice on the same line) CDSL Consumer DSL from Rockwell 1 Mbps downstream; less upstream 18,000 feet on 24 gauge Splitter less home and small business service DSL Lite "Splitterless" DSL From 1.544 Mbps to 6 Mbps downstream 18,000 feet on 24 gauge The standard ADSL; sacrifices speed for not having to install a splitter at the user's home or business HDSL / UDSL High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line / Unidirectional DSL 1.544 Mbps duplex on two twistedpair lines; 2.048 Mbps duplex on three twisted-pair lines 12,000 feet on 24 gauge T1/E1 service between server and phone company or within a company; WAN, LAN, server access SDSL Symmetric DSL 1.544 Mbps duplex (U.S. and Canada); 2.048 Mbps (Europe) on a single duplex line downstream and upstream 12,000 feet on 24 gauge Same as for HDSL but requiring only one line of twisted-pair ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line 1.544 to 6.1 Mbps downstream; 16 to 640 Kbps upstream 1.544 Mbps at 18,000ft 2.048 Mbps at 16,000ft 6.312 Mpbs at 12,000ft 8.448 Mbps at 9,000ft Used for Internet and Web access, motion video, video on demand, remote LAN access RADSL Rate-Adaptive DSL from Westell Adapted to the line, 640 Kbps to 2.2 Mbps downstream; 272 Kbps to 1.088 Mbps upstream Not provided VDSL Very high Digital Subscriber Line 12.9 to 52.8 Mbps downstream; 1.5 to 2.3 Mbps upstream; 1.6 Mbps to 2.3 Mbps downstream 4,500 feet at 12.96 Mbps; 3,000 feet at 25.82 Mbps; 1,000 feet at 51.84 Mbps Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005 Used for Internet and Web access, motion video, video on demand, remote LAN access ATM networks; Fiber to the Neighborhood
  20. 20. Broadcast  Satellite  Modem for upload  400kbps download  DirectPC Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  21. 21. ATM  Asynchronous Transfer Mode  Dedicated circuit  Cells used – 53byte (Header:5, Data:48) Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  22. 22. SONET  Synchronous Optical Network  Easy to add and remove multiplex channels  Asynchronous technologies require demiltiplexing and remultiplexing of the entire switching structure when a change is made.  Ring  DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) – divides fiber into 32 channels from 1520-1580nm wavelengths Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  23. 23. Terms  Synchronous - digital transitions in the signals occur at exactly the same rate.  Plesiochronous - transitions occur at “almost” the same rate, with any variation being constrained within tight limits.  Asynchronous - transitions do not necessarily occur at the same rate Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  24. 24. Optical Carrier (OC)  See page 273 Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005
  25. 25. HIPPI  High Performance Parallel Interface  Serial HIPPI, 800Mbps  GSN (Gigabyte System Network) HIPPI 6400, 6.4Gbps Networking Concepts – Eric Vanderburg ©2005

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